IV. - ERICChapter 2, "The 3 R.s: Redur:tion, Refinement, and Replacement," includes biology teaching objectives, alternatives that use the 3 R's, and lessons that use the 3 R's. Chapter - [PDF Document] (2024)

IV. - ERICChapter 2, "The 3 R.s: Redur:tion, Refinement, and Replacement," includes biology teaching objectives, alternatives that use the 3 R's, and lessons that use the 3 R's. Chapter - [PDF Document] (1)

ED 340 595

AUTHORTITLE

INSTITUTION

SPONS AGENCYREPORT NOPUB DATENOTEAVAILABLE FROM

PUB TYPE

EDRS PRICEDESCRIPTORS

IDENTIFIERS

ABSTRACT

DOCUMENT RESUME

SE 052 458

Hairston, Rosalina V., Ed.The Responsible Use of Animals in Biology ClassroomsIncluding Alternatives to Dissection. MonographIV.

National Association of Biology Teachers, Washington,D.C.

Geraldine R. Dodge Foundation, Morristown, NJ.I513N-0-941212-06-890

162p.

National Association of Biology Teachers, 11250 RogerBacon Drive #10, Reston, VA 22090.Guides - Classroom Use - Teacl.ing Guides (ForTeacher) (052)

MF01 Plus Postage. PC Not Available from EDRS.Affective Behavior; Anatomy; Animal Facilities;*Biology; *Classroom Environment; ("omputer Uses inEducation; Controversial Issues (Course Content);Course Content; Demonstrations (Educational);Ecology; Elementary Secondary Education; Ethics;Evolution; Genetics; Interactive Video; *LaboratoryAnimals.; Laboratory Experiments; Middle Schools;Models; Physiology; Resource Materials; Safety;*Science Activities; Science Education; TeachingMethods*Dissection

This monograph discusses the care and maintenance ofanimals, suggests some alternative teaching strategies, and affirmsthe value of teaching biology as the study of living organisms,rather than dead specimens. The lessons in this monograph areintended as guidelines that teachers should adapt for their ownparticular classroom needs. Chapter 1, "What Every Life ScienceTeacher Should Know Aboth. Using Vertebrate Animals in the Classroomand in Science Projects," discusses procurement and maintenwice ofanimals, accidents involving animals, disposal of dead animals, anddiseases that can be transmitted from animals to humans. Chapter 2,"The 3 R.s: Redur:tion, Refinement, and Replacement," includes biologyteaching objectives, alternatives that use the 3 R's, and lessonsthat use the 3 R's. Chapter 3, "Ethical Considerations," presents afield guide to the animal rights controversy and lessons that exploreethics. Chapter 4, "Resources," provides information on teachingmaterials, publishers and vendors, and selected organizations. Copiesof the National Association of Biology Teachers (NABT) policystatement on animals in biology classrooms and the NABT guidelinesfor the use of live animals are included. Appendices include thefollowing: (1) principles and guidelines for the use of animals fromthe National Academy of Science, tne National Research Council, theInstitute of Laboratory Animal Resources, and the Canadian Council onAnimal Care; and (2) rules of the International Science and

Engineering Fair, the Westinghouse Science Talent S.arch, the AnimalWelfare Institute, and the Youth Science Foundation. Lists of 70references and 50 curriculum guides consulted are provided. (KR)

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U.S. DEPAPTMENT OF EDUCATION

Office ot EducationalResearch and Improvement

EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES INFORMATION

Xre

CENTER (ERIC)

This document has been reproduced as

ceived horn the person or organization

originating it

Cl Minor changeshave been made to improve

reproduction Quality

Points of mew Ofopinions slated in this docu

men) do not necessarily represeni official

OE RI position or policy

"PERMISSION TO REPRODUCE THISMATERIAL IN MICROFICHE ONLYHAS BEEN GRANTED BY

patricia J, flaethy

TO THE EDUCATIONAL RESOURCESINFORMATION CENTER (ERIC)."

The Responsible Use of

Animals in

Biology

ClassroomsIncluding Alternatives to Dissection

National Association of Biology Teachers

2 BEST COPY AVAILABLE

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The Responsible Use of Animalsin Biology Classrooms

Including Alternatives to Dissection

Monograph IV

A project of theNational Association of Biology Teachers

Funded by the Geraldine R. Dodge Foundation

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The Responsible Use of Animalsin Biology Classrooms

Including Alternatives to Dissection

Monograph IV

4

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Library of Congress Cdtaloging-in-Publication Data

Hairston, Rosalina V., 1942-The Responsible use of animals in biology classrooms: including alternativesto dissection.

(Monograph 4)p. cm.

"A project of the National Association of Biology Teachers."Includes bibliographical references and index.ISBN 0-941212-06-81. Laboratory animals. 2. Biology -- Study and teaching.

3. Biology -- Laboratory manuals. I. National Association of BiologyTeachers.QL55.R48 1990 90-6493591'.0724 dc20 CIP

Published by the National Association of Biology Teachers11250 Roger Bacon Drive #19, Reston, Virginia 22090

Copyright 01990 by the National Association of Biology Teachers.

All rights reserved. Laboratory exercises contained in this book may be reproduced onlyfor classroom use. This book may not be reproduced in its entirety by any mechanical, pho-tographic, or electronic process or in the form of a photographic recording,nor may it bestored in a retrieval system, transmitted or otherwise copied for any other use withoutwritten permission of the publisher.

Cover photo of tree frog (Hyla) and mouse (Peromyscus) courtesy of Jerry Hinkley,College of Lake County, Grayslake, Illinois; photo of angelfish (Pirrophyllum) courtesyof John Merrill, Great Fa9s, Virginia.

Printed at Byrd Press, Richmond, Virginia.

L-

t)

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"'About the Editor

Rosalina V. HaiTston has been education director of NABT since 1987.Previously sbe taught at Bishop Ireton High School in Alexandria, Virginia.She brings to NABT more than 14 years of experience in science educationin the areas of curriculum development, teacher education and research.Before coming to the United States, she was chairman of the BiologyWorkgroup of the Science Education Center at the University of thePhilinpines. In this capacity she organized and coordinated the TextbookWriting Committee for High School Biology and conducted teacherworkshops and short-term laboratory technique courses for biologyteachers. She also taught undergraduate biology courses and graduatecourses in science education. Hairston worked on several occasions as ascience educator with various UNESCO programs in Asia, Nepal andParis. During a sabbatical at the University ofManitoba from 1980 to 1982,she taught courses in biology education, supervised student teachers andconducted workshops for teachers across Manitoba. She received herbachelor of science in zoology from the University of the Philippines in1963. In 1973, she earned a Ph.D. in science education from the Universityof Texas at Austin. She has published numerous articles on curriculumdevelopment, concept formation, cognitive abilities of science studentsand science education in rural environments.

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Administration

IINABT Staff

Patricia J. McWethyExecutive Director

Louise PittackExecutive Secretary

Education Department Rosalina V. HairstonEducation Director

Alison M. RasmussenResearch Associate

Kathleen FrameSummer Research Associate

...:onnie RussellSecretary, Education Department

Marsha KingSecretary, Education Department

Dolores RobertsSecretary, Education Department

Publications Department

Finance Department

Conventions

Membership

Michelle RobbinsDirector, Publica.ions & Mnrketing

Cheryl MerrillEditor, News & Views

Stephanie BuchananEditorial Assistant

Lu BukovskeyDirector, Finance & Administration

Eileen ArnoldFinancial Assistant

Waunita NgoConvention Coordinator

Carlotta FischettiMembership Manager

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IITable of Contents

Preface ixAbout this Monograph ixPolicy Statement: Animals in Biology ClassroomsNABT Guidelines for the Use of Live Animals xii

Chapter 1. What Every Life Science Teacher Should Know AboutUsing Vertebrate Anintals in the Class oom & in Science Projects 1

Procurement & Maintenance 1Accidents Involving Animals 8Disposal of Dead Animals 8Zoonoses 8

Chapter 2. The 3 R's: Reduction, Refinement & Replacement 12Biology Teaching Objectives 16Alternatives that Use the 3 R's 18Lessons that Use the 3 R's 27

Chapter 3. Ethical Considerations 90A Field Guide to the Animal Rights Controversy 92Lessons that Explore Ethics 95

Chapter 4. Resources 104Teaching Materials 104Publishers & Vendors 118Selected Organizations 122

Epilogue 124Some Final Thoughts 124Acknowledgments 126

Appendix 128

References 136

Index 146

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Preface'About this Monograph

Tthe National Association of Biology Teachers is dedicated to promotingquality life science education and encouraging its members to achievehe highest standards of instruction. We believe that developing in stu-

dents a respect for life and an understanding of the fragile interrelationships andinterdependence of all living things is one of the primary goals of life scienceeducation. With this in mind, NABT developed a policy on using animals in theclassroom that includes a recommendation to use alternatives to dissectionwhenever possible. This monograph discusses the care and maintenance of ani-mals and suggests some alternative teaching strategies.

NABT encourages teachers to reevaluate their use of dissection as theywould any teaching technique to determine if it still satisfies the objectives oftheir biology course or if its disadvantages have begun to outweigh its advan-tages. If and when dissection is used, we want to insure that careful considerationhas been given to the numbers and species used and to questions of safety,acquisition, use and disposal. NABT supports the prudent use of organisms and,through futuTe workshops, hopes to continue to provide teachers with theknowledge and skills they nced to adopt alternatives to dissection where andwhen possible.

The lessons in this monograph are intended as guidelines that teachersshould adapt for their own particular classroom needs. The citing of specificproducts in the lessons should not be construed as an endorsem*nt by NABT.Nor do the opinions expressed by various groups involved in the animal rightsmovement necessarily reflect the association's views. Some groups refer to thecutting apart of live or anesthesized animals as vivisection, but, for the purposesof this monograph, NABT defines dissection as the cutting apart of both live andpreserved animals.

Patricia J. McWethyExecutive Director, NABT

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PolicyStatement IAnimals in Biology Classrooms*

The National Association of Biology Teachers is actively committed to the support of qualitybiology education at the precollege and college level. The quality of biology teaching is determinedin part by the classroom activities offered to students. Recently, dissection and vivisection havebeen the focus of criticism and growing dissent among students. Unfortunately, biology teachersmay have little time or resources to cope with this concern.

As a service to its members, the National Association of Biology Teachers developed thefollowing policy statement on the responsible use of animals in biology teaching, includingalternatives to dissection. Recommendations for carrying out theponcy are described in more detailin the monographThe Responsible Use of Animals in Biology Classrooms, Including Alternativesto Dissection.

The National Association of Biology Teachers believes that all biology teachersshould foster a respect for life and should teach about the interrelationship and interde-pendency of all living things. Furthermore, they should teach that humans must care forthe fragile web of life that exists on this planet.

In light of these principles, NABT supports alternatives to dissection and vivisectionwherever possible in the biology curricula. These alternatives must satisfy the objectivesof teaching scientific methodology and fundamental biological concepts. Implementingalternative methods in education does not mean excluding animals from the classroom.Certain teaching strategies allow for the continued, but modified use of animals, forexample, observation in behavior studies and experimentation with invertebrates. Inter-active instructional materials can be substituted that use state-of-the-art informationtechnologies such as computer simulations, tutorials, videotapes and videodiscs on thebiology of animals. Furthermore, NABT recommends the prudent and responsible use ofanimals in the life science classroom. This relates to a justification of the number andspecies of animals as well as proper husbandry practices. To assist in the implementationof this policy statement, NABT has provided further guidance in the above mentionedmonograph. In addition, NABT will organize and conduct, across the country, teacherworkshops that present alternatives to dissection and vivisection as well as the respon-sible use of animals in the life science classroom.

It is timely to reexamine the use of animals in precollege education. In many casesanimals are present in the K-12 cla ssroom so that students may learn about proper animalcare and for them to observe social interaction. Using animals in tatching also providesopportunities to introduce ethical concerns and an ecological appreciation of animals.

The dissection of animals has a long and well established place in the teaching of lifesciences. Well constructed dissection activities conduckd by thoughtful instructors canillustrate important and enduring principles in biology. There has been increasingcriticism recently of how and to what extent animals are used in biology classrooms andscience projects at the middle school and secondary level. Students, parents and commu-nities are becoming more outspoken in their objections to animal dissection. Faced withthis controversy, teachers may have few resources and little time to deal with these

*Approved by NABT Board of Directors, October 1989

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complex issues. Therefore, NABT is committed to providing teachers materials that offeralternatives to the more traditional practices involving dissection and vivisection.

The National Association of Biology Teachers recommends that teachers carefullyconsider alternative ways to achieve the objectives of teaching about the biology of organ-isms. These objectives should include the following:

establishment of an understanding of the organism and its role in the environ-ment,respect and appreciation for living things,humane treatment of animals,strict consideration for the safety and welfare of students and teachers,sensitivity to others' value conflicts.

The National Association of Biology Teachers is committed to providing informa-tion and teaching strategies for attaining these objectives. Furthermore, NABT supportsthe prudent use of organisms in the life science classroom and pledges to provideguidelines and direction for implementing this policy statement. NABT will disseminateinformation nationwide through its publications and teacher workshops.

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NABT GuidelinesGuidelines for the Use of Live Animals

Living things are the subject of biology, and their direct study is an Pppropriate andnecessary part of biology teaching. Textbook instruction alone cannot provide studentswith a basic understanding of life and life processes. The National Association of BiologyTeachers recognizes the importance of research in understanding life processes andproviding information on health, disease, medical care and agriculture.

The abuse o f any living organism for experimentation or any other purpose is intolerablein any segment of society. Because biology deals spedfically with living things, profes-sional biology educators must be especially coGnizant of their responsibility to preventthe inhumane treatment of living organisms in the name of science and research. Thisresponsibility should exter..1 beyond the confines of the teacher's classroom to the rest ofthe school and community.

The National Association of Biology Teachers believes that students learn the value ofliving things, and the values r f science, by the events they witness in the classroom. Thecare and concern for animals should be a paramount consideration when live animals areused in the classroom. Such teaching activities should develop in qudents and teachersa sense of respect and pleasure in studying the wonders of living things. NABT iscommitted to providing sound biological education and promoting humane attitudestc ward animals. These guidelines shotOd be followed when live animals are used in theclassroom:A. Biological experimentation should be consistent with a respect for life and all living

things. Humane treatment and care of animals should be an integral part of anylesson that includes living animals.

B. Exercises and experiments with living things should be within the capabilities ofthestudents involved. The biology teacher should be guided by the following condi-tions:1. The lab activity should not cause the loss of an animal's life. Bacteria, fungi,

protozoans and invertebrates should be used in activities that may require useof harmful substances or loss of an organism's life. These activities should beclearly supported by an educational rationale and should not be used whenalternatives are available.

2. A student's refusal to participate in an activity (e.g., dissection or experimentsievolving Lye animals, particularly vertebrates) should be recognized eind ac-commodated with alternative methods of learning. The teacher should workwith the student to develop an alternative for obtaining the required knowledgeor experience. The alternative activity should require the student to invest acomparable amount of time and effort.

C. Vertebrate animals can be used as experimental organisms in the following situ-ations:1. Observations of normal living patterns of wild animals in their natural habitat

or in zoological parks, gardens or aquaria.2. Observations of normal living functions such as feeding, growth, reproduction,

activity cycles, etc.3. Observations of biological phenomenon among and between species such as

communication, reproductive and life strategiesbehavior, interrelationships oforganisms, etc.

*Revised January 1990

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D. If live veitebrates are to be kept in the classroom the teacher should be aware of thefollowing responsibilities:I. The school, under the biology teacher's leadership, should develop a plan on the

procurement and ultimate disposition of animals. Animals should not becaptui from or released into the wild without the approval of both a respon-sible wildlife expert and a public health official. Domestic animals and "class-room pets" should be purchased from licensed a-limal suppliers. They shouldbe healthy and free of diseases that can be transmitted to humans or to otheranimals.

2. Animals should be provided with sufficient space for normal behavior andpostural requirements. Their environment should be free from undue stresssuch as noise, overcrowdits and distukunce caused by students.

3. Appropriate care-including nutritious food, fresh water, clean housing andadequate temperature and lighting for the species-should be provided daily,including weekends, holidays and long school vacations.

4. Teachers should be aware of any student allergies to animals.5. Students and teachers should immediately report to the school health nurse all

scratches, bites and other injuries, including allergies or illnesses.6. There should always be supervised care by a teacher competent in caring for

animals.E. Animal studies should always be carried out under the direct supervision of a

biology teacher competent in animal care procedures. It is the esponsibility of theteacher to ensure that the student has the necessary comprehension for the study.Students and teachers should comply with the following:1. Students should no be allowed to perform surgery on living vertebrate animals.

Hcnce, procedures requiring the administration of anesthesia and euthanasiashould not be done in the classroom.

2. Experimental procedures on vertebrates should not use pathogenic microor-ganisms, ionizing radiation, carcinogens, drugs or chemicals at toxic levels,drugs known to produce adverse or teratogenic effects, pain causing drugs,alcohol in any form, electric shock, exercise unt il ex haustion, or other distressingstimuli. No experimental procedures should be attempted that would subjectvertebrate animals to pain or distinct discomfort, or interfere with their healthin any way.

3 Behavioral studies should use only positive reinforcement techniques.4. Egg embryos subjected to experimental manipulation should be destroyed 72

hours before normal hatching time.5. Exceptional original research in the biological or medical sciences involving live

vertebrate animals should be carriPd out under the direct supervision of ananimal scientist, e.g., an animal physiologist, or a veterinary or medical re-searcher, in an appropriate research facility. The research plan should be devel-oped and approved by the animal scientist and reviewed by a humane societyprofessional staff person prior to the start of the research. All professionalstandards of conduct should be applied as well as humane care and treatment,and concern for the safety of the a-Amals involved in the project.

6. Students sheuld not be allowed to take animals home to carry out experimentalstudies.

F. Science fair projccts and displays should comply with the follnwing:I. The use of live animals in science fair projects shall be in ac -ordance with the

above guidelines. In a idition, no live vertebrate animals shall be used indisplays for science fair exhibitions.

2. No animal or animal pror7 -ts from recognized endangered species should bekept and displayed.

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Chapter 1.

Costs

IWhat Every Life Science Teacher ShouldKnow About Using Vertebrate Animalsin the Classroom & in Science Projects

n important objective of biology education is toAfoster respect for living things (Mayer 1973). This is done byintroducing students to the complexity and diversity of or-ganisms using both the traditional lecture format and di-rect contact with at :mals, whether preserved or living.Most biology classrooms feature living animals as class-room pets (referred to as "visitors" in the younger grades)and students are often asked to share in the responsibilityof caring for these animals. It is thought that such dailycontact with actual organisms helps young people learnabout the conditions necessary for life as well as develop arespect for the intrinsic value of species other than our own.

At the middle school level, studying animal behaviorthrough systanatic and careful observation motivates stu-dents to learn more about animals. For some students, thisclassroom interaction may be their only contact with ani-mals. Introducing secondary school students to animalstudies through supervised research can reinforce earlylessons and teach the procedures of scientific inquiry.

Whatever the reasons for using animals in toe class-room, there are important guidelines that every life slienceteacher should follow. These will protect animals fromneedless pain and stress as well as safeguard the health ofstudents. NABT recommends that a thorough understand-ing of the following guidelines, as well as those in thePreface, are necessary whenever animals are used in aclassroom.

A. Procurement & Maintenance

1. The teacher should carefully examine the expenses in-volved in acquiring and keeping live or preserved animals.With live animals, consider the cost of housing, food,sanitary upkeep and health maintenance. Low food con-sumption and small physical size should be determiningfactors when selecting an appropriate species. The teachershould also consider which species is best suited to thelearning environment and the instructional program. With

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Buying

Planning

2

preserved animals, the cost ratio of animal per studentshould be examined. Students can team up to study anearthworm, a frog, or a fetal pig to reduce the number ofanimals purchased.

2. Animals to be used for genetic or behavioral experimentsshould come from biological supply houses so as to stan-dardize their genetic background, age and health history.Animals meant only for classroom display (such as smallrodents or fish) can be obtained from a local pet store, butbe vigilant and avoid stores with poor reputations or un-clean animal maintenance practices. Animals from sheltersand the pound are not recommended as they have a highprobability of carrying disease (Barnard 1989. p. 1).

Preserved animals should be purchased only from areputable supply house. Find out about the chemicals usedior preservation and take appropriate precautions whilehandling the specimens. Many preserved animals shouldbe soaked in water before allowing students to work withthem so as to reduce toxic fumes. Check the label or call thesupplier if you have questions.

3. Regardless of whether you buy live or preserved animals,the process should be well planned. Preserved animalsmust be ordered, and you should know where you willstore them rrior to use. Whenever you purchase live organ-isms do as much research as possible before they arrive toprevent costly or painful mistakes. Housing, food, tem-perature and other environmental requirements should allbe carefully thought out. Consider whether this is a socialspecies that requires companions to be comfortable andthink carefully about allowing breeding to take place. Pro-visions should be made for separation of the sexes if fre-quent reproduction is not desirable.

When purchasing an unfamiliar species, consider thefollowing characteristics (Orlans 1977, p. 2). The speciesshould:

a. be hardy and able to thrive in captivity.b. have readily duplicated natural habitats.c. be fairly simple to care for and not present prob-

lems for weekend and vacation care.d. not require extensive housing space or have diffi-

cult food requirements.e. be tolerant of handling.

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Housing

Exercise

Never buy threatened/endangered species or those froma fragile habitat. Keeping wild animals in the classroom isa risky venture: in addition to safety and ethical considera-tions, you should be aware of any pertinent regulations. Formore information at the federal level, consult your localbranch of the U.S. Department of Interior, Land Enforce-ment Office. At the state level, seek advice from the depart-ment of game and fisheries' law enforcement office.

4. Housing is an extremely important consideration for class-room animals. The cage or aquarium should be designedfor the animal's physical and mental comfort first, and foraesthetic reasons second. A good cage or aquarium does thefollowing:

contains no sharp edges or broken wireskeeps food and water accessible and cleanallows sufficient space for normal activities, includ-ing exercise (see #5)maintains optimum temperature and adequate lightallows for regular maintenance with minimal distur-bance to the animalsprovides privacy so that animals occasionally canwithdraw from the bright lights and noise of a class-room

A schedule of sanitary maintenance is absolutely nec-essary. Small rodents must have their litter changed at leastonce a week. Problems with odor and insect pests canaccumulate rapidly if cages are not cleaned regu!arly. Dirtyaquariums make it difficult to see the fish and invite bacte-rial disease. Such conditions will not encourage students torespect or learn more about animals.

Avoid using pesticides for any insect problems in yourclassroom. Keeping cages clean should control pests; pesti-cides will harm invertebrates, amphibians and fish andpose a risk to vertebrates, including students and teachers!

5. Exercise is of vital importance to the health and well-beingof caged mammals (Orlans 1977,p. 263). Every few days, tryto offer some new play thi i.gs to your rodents, such as wal-nuts, toy ladders, doll furniture, empty cans and wooden orplastic wheels. Check carefully for sharp edges or toxic sub-stances; remember the animal might chew on the item.There are two types of exercise wheels-the ferris wheel andenclosed disks. The size of the ferris wheel should be three

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times the length of the animal. Wheels with rungs shouldnot be used with gerbils or other animals with long tails asthey can cause injury to the tail.

Food & water 6. Maintaining a regular feeding schedule will help ensurethat animals are not over- or underfed. This is especiallyimportant for fish, as aquariums can quickl y become fouledby the presence of too much food. Keeping a feeding check-list by the aquarium or cage or assigning one student thetask of feeding can be an effective way of controlling theamount of food given to classroom animals.

Fresh watel is more important than food to most animals.Water dishes should be cleaned and refilled daily; they caneasily become contaminated. Use water bottles, not dishes,for rodents and be sure that litter, an absorbent, does nottouch the spout; it quickly can absorb all the water in thebottle.

Be sure to plan for adequate feeding and care overweekends and holidays. Most small animals and fish canmanage two days without attention, but be prepared to seeto their needs first thing on Monday morning. Don't waituntil the last minute to arrange for a student to take ananimal home over a holiday. Check with other teachers inthe school who may have animals or plants that will requireholiday care-sometimes you can pool resources.

Veterinary care 7. When animals are ill or injured, veterinary medical atten-tion should be provided immediately . Veterinarians shouldbe consulted abou t procedures for disease surveillance andcontainment. When euthanasia is called for, a veterinarianshould perform the procedure in his office. No studentshould be allowed to witness the procedure.

Handling

4

8. In general, animals should be handled slowly and carefully.Be certain that the water in an aquarium is the correcttemperature before adding fish. The best way to do this isto float the closed bag containing the fish in the aquariumfor 15 minutes to allow the water in the bag to slowly reachthe temperature of the aquarium. Then open the bag andallow a small amount of aquarium water to enter. Afteranother 15 minutes have passed, allow the fish to slip out ofthe bag into the aquarium. When you use a net, be sure tocup it gently in your hand so that the fish does not flip itselfout onto the floor.

Frogs and toads depend on moist, clean skin for respi-ration. Therefore, it is essential that they are handled as little

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as possible and only when your hands are clean and wet. Beaware that many amphibians exude toxic substances as adefense against predators, so be sure to wash your handsthoroughly after touching them.

Small rodents should be handled gently to avoid hurtingthem and to prevent them from biting. Some people preferto use gloves, but this is not a requiremynt if the followingtechniques are used.

from Or fans, F. Barbara (1977). Animal Care from Protozoato Small Mammals. Addthon-Weaky Publishing Co., Inc.

Figure 1.1. The proper way to hold a mouse.

Alison M. &mum:

Figure 1.2. How to hold and restrain a guinea pig.

S

Mice:

Mice are usually picked up by thetail. The tail should be grasped atthe base. A preferred way of hold-ing a mouse is o secure it in yourcupped hand. See Figure 1.1 (Orlans1977).

Guinea Pigs:

Guinea pigs seldom bite, but theyare easily frightened and usuallymake determined efforts to escapewhen held. It is best to hold themby placing your thumb and forefin-ger around the neck, with the palmof your hand over the back andyour other fingers grasping thebody. When lifting a guinea pig,use your other hand to support thelower part of its body (see Figure1.2). You should always exercisespecial care when handling preg-nant females since they may be-come very heavy.

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from Or lam, F. Barbara (1977). Animal CAN from Protozoato Small Mammal& Addison-Wesley Pub haltbq Co, km

Figure 1.3. The proper way to lift a rat.

Alison M. Romuseen

Figure 1.4. Always use two hands when lifting hamsters.

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Rats:Rats normally are lifted bygently grasping the wholebody. Initially, the rat maybe caught by thebase of thetail. See Figure 1.3 (Or lans19m.

Hamsters:Hamsters will bite quicklyand deeply when agitated.Several methods may beused in handling hamsters.One is to cup both hands tohold the hamster in yourpalms. Another is to pickthem up in a method similarto that used for a rat. Pu ttingyour thumb under its chinand your forefinger aroundits neck affords good con-trol. See Figure 1.4 for theproper way to pid up ahamster.

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Alison M. Rasmussen

Figure 1.5. Hold the scruff of fur and skin be-hind the rabbit's neck to provide control whileusing your other hand to support the rearlegs. Use this method when lifting a rabbitfrom its case .

Alison M. Rasmussen

Figure 1.6. A rabbit usually remains quietwhen being carried if it is well supported andhas a place to tuck its head. This should not beused in situations where the rabbit couldbecome agitated.

Rabbits: Rabbits seldom bite, but can inflict painful scratch wounds,especially with their hind feet. Hold them in a way thatallows direct control of their hind feet (see Figures 1.5, 1.6).Grasping the loose skin over the shoulder with the head di-rected away from the holder is the best method of initialrestrainf . When lifting, support the lower part of the rabbit'sbody with your other hand. Rabbits should never be liftedby their ears. If the rabbit begins to struggle violently anddevelops rotational movement with the hind quarters, itimmedia tely should be placed on a solid surface and calmed.Continued violent struggling frequently leads to the frac-ture of one or more lumbar vertebrae and a fatal injury to thespinal cord. Rabbits can be placed in a state of hypnosis bygently rolling them on their back and slowly stroking theabdo'nen (American Association for Laboratory AnimalScience 1989).

Gerbils: Gerbils respond to and are effectively handled by the gen-eral methods indicated for other small rodents. Avoid hold-ing gerbils near the tip of the tail. Pregnant gerbils orfemales with young can be unexpectedly aggressive.

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B. Accidents Involving AnimalsAttempting to restrain an animal too tightly or picking

up an animal in a way that scares it, causes it pain or posesa threat to an animal with babies can result in a bite or deepscratch. There is little chance that a student will become illfrom such injury, but proper precautions should be takenimmediately. Broken skin should be washed thoroughlywith soap and water and then treated with an antiseptic.The teacher should report the incident to the school nurse.If an animal that has bitten a person becomes sick or dieswithin 14 days, it should be sent to the local health depart-ment so its brain can be examined for rabies.

Even if an animal has not inflicted injury, all personshandling it should wash their hands thoroughly before andafter contact. This is to protect both animals and people andto avoid the transmission of bacteria such as Salmonellawhich can be found on some small animals, particuiarlyturtles. In addition, some students may be allergic to animaldander and develop a reaction after touching or being nearthe animal. Any rash or irritation occurring after animalcontact should be examined by a doctor.

C. Disposal of Dead Animals

As a general principle, animal bodies must not be dis-posed of by incineration or other methods until rigor mortisoccurs and the animals are quite stiff. This is to ensure thatthe animal actually is dead and not comatose. The teachershould consult the school's safety officer or review thecounty's sanitation regulations for information on disposalof dead animals. Some countils prohibit burying animalcarcasses. For advice, consult your local Humane Societyoffice or the local animal shelter.

D. Zoonoses

Zoonoses are animal diseases that can be transmitted tohumans. Such diseases may be transferred from animals tohumans, sometimes through a vector (e.g., fleas, ticks), orfrom humans to animals. When live animals are kept in theclassroom either as pets/visitors, for observation, or fordissection, the teacher should be aware of certain diseasesthat may be hazardous to humans.

The list that follows presents some of the more commonzoonotic diseases. Note:For most of these, proper handlingof waste and avoidance of wild animals will protect stu-dents and teachers. The list is arranged alphabetically.

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Selected Zoonotic Diseases of ConcernWhen Using Animals in Precollege Education*

limmemilepitaanaTransmission Ova shed in feces of infected rodents (unlike other trematodesand

cestode, does not require an intermediate host)Entry Accidental ingestion/improper hygiene during cleaning of cagesResults Diarrhea and vomiting

Lyme DiseaseTransmission Carried by deer tickEntry Tick bite

Results Fever, headaches; risk arthritic, neurologic, cardiac complications

Murine typhusTransmission Rat fleas

Entry Flea bites

Results Fever

rasteurellosis ("snuffles")Transmission Carried in oral cavity and upper respiratory tract, especially in

rabbitsEntry Bite or scratch from infected cat or dog; feces of infected rabbitsResults Respiratory infection to acute septicemia of short duration

PsittacosisTransmission Dust from feces or feathers of parakeets, pigeonsEntry inhalationResults Respiratory problems

RabiesTransmission Rabid dogs, bats and wild mammals such as skunks, raccoons,

foxes

Entry Bites

Results Death

Rat Bite Fever

Transmission RodentsEntry . Rodent bitesResults Fever

*Listing compiled from: Gunnels Uniformed Services University of the I lealth Sdences, Merck VeterinaryManual and Dr. Margaret D. Snyder, Laboratory Animal Centel, Ohio State University,

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Rickettsial PoxTransmission Mice carrying infected mites

Entry Bites from mites

Results Rash

RingwormTransmission Variety of domestic, farm and wild animals

Entry Direct contact/contact with contaminated bedding

Results Skin lesions

Rocky Mountain Spotted FeverTransmission Ticks carrying R. rickettsia found on field mice, meadow voles and

dogs; most cases occur from May 1 to July 31

Entry Bites from ticks; body fluid of infected tick coming in contact with

broken skin

Results Rash, extremely high fever, headaches

SalmonellosisTransmission Dogs, cats, wild mice, birds, reptiles (especially turtles) and am-

phibians

Entry Ingestion/unhygienic handling of infected animal

Results Diarrhea, nausea and fever

TetanusTransmission Animal wastes infected with spore-forming bacteria called Clos-

tridium tetani

Entry Deep open wound

Results Tetanus or lockjaw (a condition in which the jaws become firmly

closed bccause of spasmodic muscular contraction)

ToxoplasmosisTransmission Ova shed in feces of infected cats

Entry Accidental ingestion of litter dust; poor domestic hygiene

Results Fever, flu-like symptoms

Note: In pregnant women who have never been infected, the ova will

cross the placenta and infect the fetus. The pathogen will cause neuro-

muscular damage to the fetus even if contracted in the third trimester.

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Rabies UpdateRabies is an acute infectious disease caused by a virus

and transmitted by the saliva of a rabid animal. When arabid animal bites, the infected saliva contaminates thewound and the virus gains entry into the body of a newhost.

Immunization is the most effective way to control thespread of rabies. All dogs and cats kept as pets must bevaccinated against rabies at three months of age and revac-cinated as indicated by a veterinarian. Stray dogs and catsshould be removed from the community, especially inareas where rabies is prevalent.

There is no vaccine licensed for use in wild animals.The public is warned not to handlewild animals, includinginjured animals and roadkills. Wild, carnivorous mammalsand bats (as well as the offspring of wild animals crossbredwith domestic dogs and cats) that bite people should bekilled and the brain submitted to a laboratory for rabies ex-amination. A person bitten by any wild animal should im-mediately report the incident to a physician who can evalu-ate the need for anti-rabies treatment.

The Centers for Disease Control's 1988 rabies surveil-lance report says that 88 percent of reported rabies casesoccurred in wild animals, 12 percent in domrstic animals.Skunks, raccoons and bats accounted for 82 percent of allrabid animals. Foxes and mongooses are among wild ani-mals that showed a low incidence of rabies. Among domes-tic species, cats were the most commonly reported card( 7-

illiiiiimmillial"4,,". liallioniiiiimpisholl otAsi!vc.

limmil!illyllovirt,

=,rikiIIIIII1II,iiii._

oil

. I la IP 11/1-47- ..-.. .......I.

Skunk (North Centralstates and California)Gray fox (Texas)

Skunk (South Central)

38i

Raccoon

Red fox

O Gray fox (Arizona)

from Centers for Ammo Control. CDC Survaltmux Sumniertm. (August 1983). MM IVR 1989; 38 (No. SS1)Fig ure 1.7. Distribution of five a ntigenically distinct rabies virus strains and the predominant wildlifespecies affected in the contiguous United States, 1988.

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iThe 3 R's:Chapter 2. "'Reduction, Refinement & Replacement

he editor of The Science Teacher (September 1988, p. 8)reports, "We've received dozens of letters this year fromreaders who plan to abandon 'dead biology." The dissec-tion controversy permeates the educational system fromthe biology teacher and student to the principal and, insome cases, up to the school board. The issues and contro-versy have prompted legislative bodies, including those inCalifornia and Florida, to create laws regulating the use ofcertain animals in classrooms.' Alternative teaching activi-ties need to be identified or developed and a mechanismdesigned to make these alternatives available to teachers.

Dissection has not always been a part of biology in-struction. It was not commonly used in high school classes

'In Califorffia, Assembly Bill 2507(Speier) has passed and is nowincorporated as Chapter 2.3 in Part 19 of the California EducationCode, Section 32255. The main intent of the law is to give studentsin kindergarten through grade twelve the right to refuse or refrainfrom participation in activities that they feel would constitute the"harmful and destructive use of animals." Though agricsIturalprograms are exempt from this mandate, the students' tightextends to all other subject areas, including but not limited to,biology, physiology, home economics and outdoor bic'ogy pro-grams. If the student chooses to refrain from participation, and ifthe teacher believes that an adequate alternative education projectis possible, then the teacher may work to develop and agree uponan alternate avenue for helping the student obtain the knowledge,information, or experience (memo from California State Depart-ment of Education, Curriculum and Instructional LeadershipBranch, April 10, 1989).

The Florida legislature has enacted a bill stating that no surgery ordissection shall be performed on any living mammalian verte-brate or bird. Dissection may be performed on nonliv:n; mam-mals or birds secured from a recognized source of such :_iecimensand under supervision of qualified instructors. Students may beexcused upon written request of a parent or guardian. Lowerorders of life and inve,, rates may be used in such experiments.In addition, nonmammalian vertebrates, excluding birds, may beused in biological experiments, provided that physiological harmdoes not result from such experiments. Anatomical studies shallbe conducted only on models that are anatomically correct for theanimal being studied or on nonliving nonmammalian vertebratessecured from a recognized source of such specimens and underthe supervision of qualified instructors. Students may be excusedfrcm such experiments upon written request of the parent orguardian. (Florida Statutes 233.0674 Bioiogical experiments onliving subjects 1988.)

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until 1920 (Orlans 1988a) and did not become a pervasivepart of the typical course until the establishment of the Bio-logical Sciences Curriculum Study in the 1960s. At thattime, crayfish, grasshoppers, mollusks, starfish, sharks,frogs, fetal pigs and cats all became regular candidates fordissection by high school students. The use of live animalsin elementary grades was encouraged by the Science Cur-riculum Improvement Study, whose program involvedlarge quan ti ties of guppies, tadpoles, fruit flies, crickets andsnails (Emmons 1980).

In 1987, Jenifer Graham received nationwide attentionwhen she went to court after her grade was lowered be-cause she refused to dissect a frog in bi logy class. Thisincident brought into focus the public and educators' chang-ing attitudes toward dissection. As groups devoted toanimal rights gain members and the media continues toaddress tl-e2 ethical questions surrounding the use of ani-mals in food production, fur manufacturing and medicalresearch, the dissection controversy is not likely to disap-pear.

Among the arguments in favor of dissection are:

1. It'3 a hands-on experience that allows students topar-ticipate in a personal exploration (Updike 1989).

2. It allows students to see and learn the physical place-ment of organs, the appearance and texture of tissuesand organs, and the relationship of structures withoneanother (Berman 1986).

3. It illus rates the idea that the animal body is a complexarrangement of fdnctioning organs (Schrock 1990).

4. It develops manual dexterity in using dissection in-struments (Delaware Association of Biology Teachers1990).

The opponents of dissection use the following arguments:

1. It's a desensitizing experience for students (Leib 1985).2. It can be perceived as condoning the dt,secration of a

dead body (Santopoalo 1985).3. Students might do a poor dissertion; the activity be-

comes a "hack and slash" experience. The amount ofinformation learned is often less than and inferior tothat gained from a lesson without dissection (McCol-lum 1988)

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Dissection

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4. It is not moral to harm animais when there is nocompelling reason and when alternative activities canteach the same content and skills (Orlans 1988a).

5. High school biology should emphasize contemporarysubjects such as genetics, cell biology, etc., with an em-phasis on teaching thinking, not memorization (Wa-ters 1990).

6. Dissection does not foster a reverence for life. Thisshould be a part of the objectives of a biology course(Russell 1980).

There is a growing awareness among teachers andstudents that the wanton collection of animals brings aboutan imbalance in natural populations. A blend of ecological,ethical and moral concerns has provoked many studentsand teachers to question the justification of dissection aswell as the use of animals in classroom experiments andscience fair projects.

The following questions are intended to help teachersfocus on various considerations when deciding whether todissect and whether to keep and use live enimals for in-struction. The questions are classified into three categories:Dissection, Live animals and General.

1. Is dissection necessary for all students in the elemen-tary grades, in middle school and in high school?

2. Are the intended instructional outcomes significantenough to warrant the use of preserved or live ani-mals?

3. Is it necessary for each student to have an animal todissect or could one teacher-prepared demonstrationbe substituted?

4. Have I taken steps to ensure proper ventilation in thelaboratory? Do students understand adequate safetyprecautions for the use and storage of instrumentssuch as scalpels, razors, scissors and probes?

5. Have I made provisions for the proper and safe dis-posal of animals after dissection?

6. Can the procedures and skills be taught effectivelyusing an alternative?

7. Are there al ternate activities for students who object todissection on a philosophical or moral basis?

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Live animals

General

1. Am I aware of my responsibilities for the health andsafety of students when I keep live animals in the class-room?

2. Have I thoroughly and objectively examined my rea-sons for using animals in the classroom?

3. Am I using animals in my classroom because of aca-demic tradition?

4. Am I well trained to ensure that experimental proce-dures are done appropriately and humanely?

5. Am I aware of proper husbandry and handling tech-niques so I can give proper instruction to students?

6. Can I properly care for the animals in the classroom,even during holidays and summer vacations?

1. Have I considered students' feelings about living or-ganisms when using them in my classroom?

2. Does the use of dead organisms or the killing ananimal provide students with an understanding of orrespect for life?

3. Have I considered that collecting frogs and otheranimals from the wild contributes to a significant de-pletion of the population, resulting in an imbalance ofan ecosystem?

4. Is it justified to conduct experiments that cause painand harm to vertebrate animals?

Section A that follows presents research on the roledissection plays in state-mandated objectives of Ameri-can school systems. Section B provides alternative les-sons that can be used to replace or reduce the amountof dissection and live animal experimentation in biol-ogy classes.

e) S

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Section A. Biology Teaching Objectives

Cognitive objectives

Affective objectives

16

NABT examined state curriculum frameworks andschool systems' guidelines to determine which teachingobjectives required dissection as the instructional method.These objectives were summarized and presented at vari-ous NABT workshops and validated by participants. Theobjectives were then classified according to the followingdomains: cognitive, affective, psychom*otor and scientificinquiry. This classification is based on Bloom's Taxonomy ofEducational Objectives (1956) and Kloefer's Table of Specifica-tions for Science Education (Bloom, et al. 1971).

This list of objectives represents goals that any alterna-tive to dissection must be able to achieve. Section B (follow-ing the list) presents lessons that reduce, replace or refinedissection while still meeting these objectives.

1. To orient students to the gross anatomy and body planof organisms.

2. To recognize major external structures.3. To recognize major internal structures.4. To locate organs of the different systems.5. To determine the function of an organ.6. To list structural characteristics of organisms belong-

ing to specific phyla.7. To label diagrams and illustrations of structures in an

animal.8. To recognize the structures of animals adapted for

specialized functions.9. To describe the organization and relationship be-

tween an organism's structure and function.10. To demonstrate unique animal traits (e.g., regenera-

tion).11. To determine the interrelationships among tissues

and organs.12. To classify organisms in the major taxonomic catego-

ries (kingdom, Phylum, Class, etc.) based on similari-ties in structure.

1. To foster an awareness of the interrelationships thathave existed among organisms through time.

2. To perceive the pattern of complexity of structure andfunction, as well as the beauty and economy of de-signs in different organisms.

3. To acknowledge the delicate balance between organ-isms ard their environment.

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4. To appreciate the elegant diversity in structures oforganisms.

1 To appreciate the organism as a holistic entity ratherthan a collection of organ systems.

6. To teach responsible attitudes toward animals (e.g.,care, breeding, etc.).

7. To instill an interest in pursuing a career that involvesstudying and caring about animals.

Psychom*otorobjectives 1. To use the senses to observe organ systems' structures.

2. To select tools for dissection and use them properly.3. To examine histological sections of certain organs.4. To measure certain structures (e.g. length of intestine,

size of pig heart) accurately.5. To demonstrate safety skills when using dissection in-

struments.6. To sketch and locate the relationship between struc-

ture and function of organisms' structures.7. To demonstrate proper handling of animals for spe-

cific procedures.8. To maintain appropriatelife-supporting environments

for animals.

Scientific inquiryobjectives 1. To observe animals and/or their structures as they

relate to their functions.2. To perceive proportion, shape, texture, location and

detail of structures.3. To use correct terminology to locate and identify the

structures of animals.4. To describe from observation the parts or organs of

animals from different species.5. To determine the best dissection procedure to study

organs and/or structures of animals.6. To formulate hypotheses concerning the evolution of

adaptive structures for survival.7. To explain the function of organs and structures of

animals.8. To design an experiment that testsa hypothesis.9. To observe and interpret the effects of certain vari-

ables (e.g., substances, nutrition) on animals.10. To explain how animals evolve various adaptivestruc-

tures for survival.11. To deduce from the design of the body plan how

structures perform their functions efficiently.17

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Section B. Alternatives that Use the 3 R's

High school biology classes traditionally include thedissection of typical vertebrates such as the rat or fetal rig.Many biology classes "travel through the phyla" by dissect-ing earthworms, grasshoppers, clams and starfish, culmi-nating with a frog or cat. Student research projects may useinvasive procedures such as the injection of toxic _Alb-stances and hormones and experiments that deprive ananimal of fr)od or disturb its normal physiological cycle.

Some biology teachers and curriculum specialists claimthat students need these activities to better understand lifeprocesses and the role of organisms in their environment.Other teachers and students have raised concerns about thevalue and ethics of these teaching methods. In response tothis deba te, many teachers have begun to look for mid makeuse of alternatives to dissection and live animal experimen-tation.

Alternatives to traditional dissection have met with avariety of criticisms. Proponents of dissection charge thatalternatives are passive activities that do not involve stu-dents in "hands-on" learning. They claim that altei ilativesdo not achieve the objectives of the curriculum and deprivestudents of an opportunity to see the natural appearanceand orientation of organs in an animal's body.

Strauss (in progress) reviewed several studies thatcompared dissection to other teaching methods and re-ported results favoring the argument for alternatives. Astudy by McCollum (1988) revealed that student test scoresimproved significantly when the students were taught froganatomy by lecture rather than by structured dissection.Prentice et al. (1977) compared the test results of medicalschool students who were taught by a slide-based auto-in-structional unit and those who were taught by dissection.The results showed no significant differences between thetest results of the two groups on the practical dissectionquestions and on the written questions. Another medicalschool study examined the use of silent film loops assubstitutes for cadavers in the study of gross anatomy.Weiser (1969) found that students who were taught withthe silent film loop scored significantly higher than thosewho dissected the cadavers.

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Good alternatives must teach both the techniques andthe biological concepts in tended for the lesson. They shouldrequire the student to invest a comparable amount (and effort. The best alternatives foster self-motivated dis-covery and the development of critical thinking in stu-dents.

Russell and Burch (1959) defined "alternatives to theuse of animals" as anything from reduction in the numberof animals required to, whenever possible, the replace-ment of animals with alternative techniques to the re-finement of existing proceduresortechniques to minimizethe level of stress induced on the animal.

This definition, which became known as "the threeR's," was adopted by the U.S. Office ofTechnology Assess-ment in the document Alternatives to Animal Use in Research,Testing and Education (1986). In accordance with this view,NABT designed this monograph to provide teachers withmaterials and teaching strategies to help them apply theprinciple of the three R's in their search for alternatives.

This section first presents ideas as to how alternativescan be incorporated into the regular curriculum. It is fol-lowed by specific lessons that were contributed by teachersat NABT-sponsored workshops and were sent to NABTheadquarters. Numerous suggestions of alternatives alsowere collated from publications relating to animal welfareznd humane education. Hence, this section serves as aclearinghouse to enable biology teachers to locate resourcesand share with one another their ideas on alternatives to theuse of animals.

Complete citations of the sources are included in thereferences. The names and addresses of contributors are in-cluded with the lessons. The presentation of alternatives tothe use of animals is organized by major divisions in biol-ogy. These categories are:

anatomy and physiologydiversity of living thingsgenetics and evolutionecologybehavior

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Anatomy & physiology

20

Knowledge of basic anatomy lays the groundwork for

a broader understanding of organisms. Most educatorswho use traditional dissection and animal experimentsclaim they are necessary to satisfy the objectives of aunit on

anatomy or physiology. However, there are a variety of

ways to learn and teach anatomy and physiology.

A. Reduction

Using alterna Live techniques does not necessarily meanbanishing animals from the classroom. There are severalmethods that allow for modified use of animals.

DemonstrationDe. ,onstration of dissection by the teacher can com-

bine (4._ :ct student participation with a reduction in thenumber of animals sacrificed. When done professionally,demonstration avoids errors and the "hack and slash"method of dissection often done by inexperienced students.It is also significantly less expensive. Students should pre-pare for a demonstration by learning basic anatomy andsomething about the animal's habitat and niche. If the classis small enough, students can gather around the teacher towatch. If there are many students, more than cne instructorshould perform demonstrations simultaneously orequip-ment such as a videocamera and monitor should be used.

If a demonstration seems too awkward, consider pro-viding groups of four or five students with one animal,rather than allowing students to work in pairs. This notlnly reduces the number of animals needed, it allows more

le for the teacher to work with each group.

I 2rved specimensBiological mounts, skeletons a:id dissected specimens

embedded in acrylic are effective, economical alternativesto the traditional formalin-preserved carcasses. Studieshave shown that students who handle dried specimenssuch as horseshoe crabs and sea stars learn just as well asthose who touch live animals (Sherwood, et al. 1989). Notonly are such specimens more durable and appealing thananimals in formaldehyde, they are reusable, reducing sig-

nificantly the number of organisms sacrificed for classroomstudy.

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DataRather than being required to conduct actual experi-

ments on animals, students can be provided with the rawdata from such experiments and asked to undertake theirown analysis. Not only does this avoid inflicting pain onlarge numbers of animals, it saves a considerable amount oftime arid money.

Belzer (1989) has used this technique with students inintroductory anatomy and physiology when studying thevagus nerve in rats. He finds that students focus more oftheir energy on problem solving and inquiry skills and lesson the manipulation of animals, thereby achieving more ofhis educational objectives.

B. Replacement

Instructional models, charts, diagrams, transparenciesand photographs are plentiful and have been used formany years as substitutes for real specimens. Many wouldcomplain, however, that these are static and uninterestingwhen compared with a real organism. There are severalways to avoid this problem without sacrificing or harminganimals.

Audio visual mediaVideo technology has evolved to such a state of sophis-

tication that the biological reality of living organisms caneasily be demonstrated. Films and videotapes can presentexperiments that cannot be performed in the classroom andcan be replayed as many times as needed for students tolearn a particular concept or technique.

ComputersThe lack of student interaction inherent in a film can be

addressed with computer technology. Software is availablethat provides students with tutorials and simulations re-quiring them to make their own decisions while allowingthem to work a:. their own pace. In some cases, studentscanconstruct mathematical models of quanti fiable phenomenasuch as inheritance or predator-prey interactions which aredifficult to study in natural populations.

Computer and video technology has been combinedinto Interactive Videodisc Technology (IVD) which stores avariety of photographic images on disk. Students can inter-act with a video by using prompts and by touching the

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22

screen. IVD allows students to explore the body of ananimal exactly as if they were performing a dissection, sinceactual photographs are used.

When HyperCard and Hyper Text software are in-volved, IVD is referred to as Hypermedia. Computer-assisted learning and interactive video programs offerexcellent possibilities for replacing dissection and animalexperimentation in the biology classroom.

Human subjectsHumans are a vertebrate worthy of study and can

provide many hands-on activities that eliminate the needfor animal subjects. (Teachers should always remember toensure the safety, dignity and privacy of student partici-pants.) Experiments dealing with nutrition, the leveragepower of forearms, eye dominance, depth perception, lo-calization of sound, the judging of weights, the mapping ofsweat glands, muscle fatigue and reaction time all havebeen used with success at the middle and high school level(Orlans 1970, 1974; Chiapetta 1987). Human physiology in-vestigations for advanced students have been written byRussell (1978), an.1 Reed (1989) has edited a collection ofsimple human anatomy activities that can be used withstudents at all levels.

Dry labsHigher order thinking skills can be emphasized by

asking students to analyze the structure of organisms. Forexample, Brett (1989) designed an activity for grade 10biology that teaches insect anatomy while avoiding rotememorization of terms. Students reconstruct the body planof a typical insect by following a series of instructions basedon geometry. Many teachers teach evolution by askingstudents to design their own life forms using principles ofanatomy illustrated by existing organisms. Such innova-tive activities are inexpensive and can replace traditionalexaminations of dead specimens.

In vitro methodsMany scientists work with cell cultures rather than live

animals. The Center for Advanced Training in Cell and Mo-lecular Biology at Catholic University has begu n a project tomake it feasible for high school teachers to introducemammalian cell culture exercises in their biology labs. Theproject will provide fixed coverslip cultures of human and

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mouse cells for cytological analysis, metaphase-blockedfixed cells for chromosome spreadsand staining and fixednormal and tumor cell lines to show differences in growthpatterns and cytology. Videotapes, protocols and supplieswill be included. For more information, contact: High SchoolCell Program, CATCMB, Catholic University of America,Washington, DC 20064; (202) 635-5276.

C. Refinement

Existing procedures can be modified so as to reduce theamount of stress experienced by both the animal subjectsand the students who must manipulate living or deadanimals.

SubstitutionAvoiding the more sentient creatures in favor of inver-

tebrates such as worms or water fleas (Daphnia) is one wayof refining one's use of animals in the classroom (Orlans1977). Dissection of organisms such as fish or squid thatareoffered for sale as food can remove the stigma of killinganimals merely for education, especially if students cookand eat them after the dissection is complete.

ObservationWhenever possible, students should observe animals

engaged in their natural behaviors. Keeping animals in wellconstructed cages in the classroom and making regulartrips into the field or even to a zoo or aquarium is anexcellent way to increase students' respect for animalswhile teaching anatomy and physiology. Individual proj-ects such as observing bird nesting habits or the flowerpreference of an insect can instill appreciation for thecomplexity and beauty of living things in many students. Ifdissection is still performed, students who have gained anappreciation for the living animal will be more likely to takeit seriously and learn more than a disinterested student.

These stra tegies are not expensiveor difficult, and theybring out students' natural inquisitiveness about naturewhich is the basis of scientific inquiry.

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Diversity of living thingsBiological diversity is often presented via dissection of

the so-called representative organism of each phylum. Just

as the use of animals can be reduced, replaced, or refinedwhile studying anatomy and physiology, a survey of living

things can be done without the usual paradeof dissections.Attenborough's (1982, 1985) film series on organisms andbiomes can serve as an excellent visual aid for diversitystudies. Young children can be introduced toclassificationusing their own pets (Reed 1989) and secondary schoolstudents can learn about the full range of life on this planet

by engaging in classroom surveys that function more likemes than science labs(Purser 1989). Once again, visits to

4 JO, museum or wildlife park are often more positiveexperiences than traveling through the digestive systemsofvarious dead specimens. (See the chapter on resources for

additional references.)

Genetics & evolutionThe study of inheritance often requires that organisms

be alive to observe the characteristics in question. The evi-

dence of evolution through adaptation is demonstrated byanatomical structures, physiological processes and behav-ior. Therefore, animals should be studied in their naturalenvironment as much as possible. Here are some ideas:

Inheritance1. Rodents

A common class project in genetics is the study ofsimple Mendelian inheritance of coat color in genera-tions of small rodents (Alternatives to Animal Use inResearch, Testing and Education 1986, p. 209).

2. Fruit fliesDrosophila, the common fruit fly, is an ideal organismfor breeding studies because it is readily available andthe inherited characteristics are easy to observe.Droso-

phila reproduces and develops rapidly and requiresrelatively simple maintenance.

3. DNAAnother study 1 genetic variation in animals may beconducted using recombinant DNA technologies. Themethod is direct and noninvasive.

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Ecology

4. Shells & zebrasA class project or activity for studying patterns of in-heritance may use design and coloration in shells orstripe patterns in zebras.

5. CellsHuman cells, such as skin cells, can be grown in tissuecultures for the study of human chromosomes. Tissueculture methods and karyotyping, using human cellsgrown in suitable nutrient media, can be performedby high school students. These methods can be modi-fied to study the effects of pharmacological agents,food additives, radiation, etc. on cell growth and chro-mosome structure. Methods of this kind, which play asignificant role in biomedical research, give studentsexperience in laboratory research (Russell 1980).

Variation6. Dog

A worthwhile project is to have your class make adetailed study of one organism to see how representa-tive it isof i ts class. For instance, students can study themajor body parts and external characteristics of acertain species of animala dog, for example. Usingvarious categories such as facial differences, bodysize, ear size, fur length and thickness, and so on, stu-dents can docu mt the range of variation in appear-ance of dogs i;nd then evaluate the biological signifi-cance of these natural variations.

7. SkullsThe study ot vertebrate skulls revrmls adaptations forspecific functions. Lawson (1988) has written a lessonthat applies the learning cycle (exploration, conceptintroduction and application) to study vertebrateskulls.

Using animals in the classroom to teach ecology isvirtually impossible. Many teachers rely on descriptivelectures and films for this portion of the biology course. Wesuggest that many of the alternative techniques describedearlier easily lend themselves to a discussion of ecology. Bycombining ecology with a study of anatomy, physiologyand variation, students will receive a more complete andinteresting picture of the natural world.

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Field studiesStudents from elementary through high school can

benefit from a long term outdoor project. Reed's Kid Science(1989) describes a simple exercise for young children andtheir parents 'hat teaches them to become good observers.Another issue of the same publication discusses a "phenol-ogy book" that students and teachers can maintain to keephack of biological events occurring in their community.

Animal cluesStudents who regularlygo into the field often will find

the remains of animals, if they are taught what to look for.An investigation of animal tracks and scat can reveal muchabout behavior and anatomy. One such exercise involvingbarn owl pellets has been written by Bea ler (1980).

Behavior

An animal can be observed fora considerable length oftime without doing it any harm. Painless experiments onlearning ability and theresponses of many organisms rang-ing from worms to fish to rodents serve as excellent ways toinstill students with an appreciation for life.

Teachers ca n find a snail observationexercise for youngchildren in Reed (1989). A study of bird behavior has beendescribed by Weber, et al. (1990) and Marchioni (1989) haswritten a lesson that investigates the behavior of Planaria,the common flatworm. Marchioni (1987) has also publisheda set of curriculum materials that combine comparativepsychology, neurobiology and animal behavior into a unitcalled Biopsychology. It includes activities such as a study ofa*ggression in Siamese fighting fish as an example of in-stinct, drive and motivation.

The following sample lessonsuse the principle of thethree R's. These lessons were contributed by NABTmembers who, on their own, searched for ways to offera con- dable learning experience to any students un-comfo....ble with dissectionor the use of animals in theirbiology class.

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Lessons That Use the 3 R's

This section consists of teacher-written lessons. Theproducts mentioned in the lessons have not been endorsedby NABT. The lessons are grouped in the followingcatego-ries:

A. Teaching Anatomy with ModelsB. Films as AlternativesC. Interactive Computer & Video ProgramsD. Refinements of Dissection & Experimentation

[ A Guide to the Lessons in this Chapter

A. Teaching Anatomy with ModelsThe Anatomy of the Frog 29Earthworm Anatomy 31Build a Frog 34The Perch: Model Dissection & Imitation 36Studying Human Anatomy Using Student-Made Models 39

B. Films as AlternativesA Study of the Relationship Between Structure & Function of

the Human Organism Using the Videotape "TheIncredible Machine" 42

"The Frog Inside-Out (Parts I & 45

C. Interactive Computer & Video ProgramsTutorial Using the Computer Program "Anatomy of a Shark" 50"Visifrog: Vertebrate Anatomy": Structure and Function of a

Typical Vertebrate 52Using the Computer Simulation "Operation: Frog' as an

Alternative to Dissection 55"Frog Dissection": An Alternative to Dissection 58"Interactive Frog Dissection" 61A Hypermedia Program of the Frog: A Laboratory

Dissection of Rana pipiens 63The Effects of Adrenalin on the Heart 66

D. Refinements of Dissection & ExperimentationSquid: An Illustration of Adaptation 69Look at My Muscles ... Who's a Chicken? 73Structural & Behavioral Adaptations of Felines 77The Snail 84The Frog 87

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A. Teaching Anatomy with Models

Models are effective teaching tools, especially thosethat can be taken apart and reassembled. This type of modelcan demonstrate the physical relationships andappearanceof organs.

Models can be expensive to purchase, but are a one-time investment that can be used over many years. Theysave the annual purchase of preserved animals, the pricesof which increase regularly. Models allow students to studythe structures repeatedly without their being torn or acci-dentally cu t. Moreover, millions ofanimals-e.g., frogs-couldbe saved and their niche in the environment maintained.

Teachers can use three-dimensional anatomical mod-els, which can be taken apart and reconstructed, as substi-tutes for dissection and vivisection. There are also two-di-mensional plastic models of parts of organisms which canbe separated and reassembled. Sample lessons using thesetwo types of models are presented in this section. Themodels can be ordered from suppliers listed under Re-sources.

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Lesson title: The Anatomy of the FrogBy: Rosa lina V. HairstonNational Association of BiologyTeachers, 11250 Roger Bacon Drive#19, Reston, Virginia 22090; (703)471-1134

Grade level

Objectives

Matprials

Teaching tips

This lesson is built around a large scale model of thefrog's internal structure. It is designed to replace the dissec-tion of preserved or freshly killed frogs. Groups of studentsare assigned various systems and act as "specialists," teach-ing the rest of the class about their organ system. The finalactivity described involves the entire class in reconstruct-ing the frog from paper cut-outs.

Grade 7 life science; grade 10 biology.

At the e.nd of this lesson students should be able to:1. Describe the external anatomy of the frog.2. Identify the various organ systems.3. List and state the function of each of the structures that

comprise the system.4. Take apart and accurately reassemble the parts of the

frog.

?i model of the external and internal anatomy of the frog,e.g., Somso's frog model. Dissectable into five parts.Available from Carolina Biological Supply Company.overhead projectortransparency master with outline of the organ systemtransparency pen set or erasable markers of assortedcolors

Divide the class into five groups and assign each a topic:Group 1 external anatomy of frogGroup 2 digestive systemGroup 3 respiratory systemGroup 4 circulatory systemGroup 5 urogenital system

Each group will be the "specialist" for its topic. Hand outassignments one week before the class acevity to allowtime for research. Appoint one member of each groupas leader.

This lesson is suitable for the study of a typical vertebrate.Review the organization of cells, tissues, organs andsystems before this lesson.

You can do this class activity using only one model. Theentire lesson may take 90 minutes.

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Instructional procedure 1. Conduct a brief discussion on the natural life habits ofthe frogwhere it lives and its development from eggto tadpole up to adult stage. Describe appearance, sizeand habitat of different kinds of frogs. You may beable to discuss some reproduztive behavior, for ex-ample the way males croak in a mating call. You maywish to use the videotape "The Frog Inside-Out (PartI)" to enrich the introduction to the lesson (see p. 45).

2. Start with group 1 (external anatomy) as the specialist.Call on one member of the group to describe theexternal structures found in the frog. Have a secondgroup member point to the structures. Have a thirdmember describe the specific functions of each struc-ture. Any remaining members can help answer ques-tions after the group presentations.

3. Do the same with groups 2, 3, 4 and 5. As each groupfrom 2 to 5 finishes presenting its assigned o tan sys-tem, one member will trace and color the systmi on thetransparency. Each organ system will be a specificcolor. Have students decide the colors.

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The teacher should serve as a facilitator/moderator.This is a lesson in which the students are responsible fortheir learning. It is also a good opportunity for cooperativelearning.

Evaluation To make sure students learn from one another, havethem assemble cut out drawings of organ systems. Havethe students tape or paste the pieces on an illustrationboard. Students label the organ and write the function on astrip of paper. When all the organs have been pasted on, theclass will have constructeda collage of the internal anatomyof a frog. Make sure the group that worked on a specificorgar system does not work on the same topic during thepaper cut-out activity.

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Lesson title:

By: Kathleen FrameBishop O'Connell High School,6600 Little Falls Road, Arlington,Virginia 22213; (703) 237-1400

Grade level

Objectives

Materials

Teaching tips

Earthworm Anatomy

This lesson is based on National Teaching Aids' earth-worm model. This model is made of a series of vinyloverlays that can be removed and examined much as onewould dissect a real earthworm. The lab involves present-ing the model to students with an explanation of the func-tions of organs and systems. Somepre-- and post-lab activi-ties are described. This lesson can serve as an alternative tothe dissection of preserved earthworms. This lesson maytake 90 minutes.

Grade 7 life science; grade 10 biology.

At the end of this lesson students should be able to:1. Describe the body plan of the earthworm.2. Nprnber the segments of the earthworm and use them

as reference points for locating external and internalstructures.

3. Locate and describe the function of the structures ofthe external anatomy and circulatory, digestive, ex-cretory, nervous and reproductive systems.

Model of the Earthworm (0 1970). Available from Na-tional Teaching Aids, Inc.

live earthworms (1 for every 2 students) in covered !-)etridishes

hand lens (same number as worms)

The vinyl model is large, two-dimensional and consists ofa series of overlays.

The plastic pieces are well packaged and easy to keep. Ifany pieces are lost, National Teaching Aids maintainsan "organ bank" from which a replacement can beordered.

Present the model of the earthworm to the class with partscorrectly assembled. Copy portions of the manual forstudents to read before the activity.

This activity could be used foran entire dass or with a teamcomposed of 3 to 4 students.

Put an earthworm in each petri dish with moist soil. Coverthe petri dish.

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Instructional procedure

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1. To prepare for this lesson ask students to read aboutthe habitat of the earthworm and its role in the ecosys-tem. Whether you decide to work with teams of stu-dents or as a class, have them research the parts andfunction of structures for each organ system: nervous,circulatory, digestive, excretory and reproductive.

2. To motivate students for the lesson, pass around theearthworms in covered petri dishes. Tell students touse a hand lens to observe the movement and externalstructures of the earthworm. Ask them to determinethe orientation points of the earthworm (i.e., dorsal,ventral, anterior, posterior). Allow enough time forobservation, then collect the petri dishes and put theearthworms in a moist soil chamber or terrarium. Em-phasize that it is important to return them to theirnatural habitat as soon as possible to prevent dehydra-tion.

3. Now, conduct the activity using the vinyl model.Translate the orientation points of the live earthwormto the vinyl model. Locate the first 37 segments usingthe imprinted Roman numerals as a guide.

4. Using segment numbers when applicable, have stu-dents identify the external structures of the earth-worm and their functions. Some of these structuresare: grooves, mouth, prostomium, anus, setae, cl*tel-lum, dorsal pores, nephridiopores, sperm receptacle,opening to the oviduct, opening to thesperm duct andseminal groove.

5. Remove Overlay G. This section illustrates the nerv-ous system. Have the students (or assigned team)locate the parts of the nervous system (brain, cir-cumpharyngeal connectives, ventral nerve cord, seg-mental nerve, lateral nerves, sensory cell) and describeeach.

6. Remove Overlay E. This cluster of segments is the cir-culatory system. Using the same procedure, have stu-dents locate some of the following: septa, dorsal ves-sel, ventral vessel, aortic arches, parietal vessels, dor-sointestinal vessels, lateral vessels and segmentalvessels.

7. Remove Overlay D. These segments show the diges-tive system. Have students locate the buccal region,pharnyx, esophagus, calciferous glands, crop, giz-zard, intestine and anus.

8. Remove Overlays B and F. Structures in this cross-section are the typhlosome, intestinal epithelium,

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chloragogen cells, peritoneum, longitudinal muscles,circular muscles, epidermis, cuticle, gland cell andcoelom. Since this is a cross-section, the teacher mayhave to identify these sti uctures and describe how across-section is made.

9. Locate the nephridiopore and trace the structures ofthe excretory system. These should include the neph-rostome, tubules and nephridium.

10. As you begin to examine the reproductive system, in-troduce and de;ine the word "hermaphroditic."Earth-worms exemplify this condition: one organism pos-sesses both male and female reproductive organs.Have students locate the following male reproductivestructures and give the function of each: testes, spermfunnel, sperm duct and sperm sacs. Locate and de-scribe the function of the structures of the femalereproductive organs: ovary, ovarian funnel, ovisacand sperm receptacle.

11. Allow enough time for students to master the struc-tures of each organ system by working with the vinylmodel. If necessary,arrange for students to work indi-vidually during their free periodsor after class.

12. Give students the responsibility of correctly reassem-bling the model.

Evaluation Conduct a writing, poster drawing, comic-strip draw-ing, or three-dimensional diorama contest on the earth-worm anatomy, its adaptation and its role in the envi-ronment.

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Lesson title: Build a Frog

By: Mison M. RasmussenNational Association of BiologyTeachers, 11250 Roger Bacon Drive#19, Reston, Virginia 22090; (703)471-1134

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This lesson is based on National Teaching Aids' modelof a frog. The model is made of a series of vinyl overlays thatcan be removed and examined in the sequence in whichthey would appear in a real frog. The lesson requires thatstudents select a part to research. They then reassemble thefrog in class while teaching each other about their part'smain function and comparing it to the same part in ahuman. A post-lab quiz is recommended. This activity canserve as an alternative to dissection of preserved or freshlykilled frogs.

Grade level Grade 7 life science, grade 10 biology.

Time required Two class periods: At least one class period for assignmentand student research (research also can be done as home-work); one class period for reconstruction of frog model.

Objectives In this lesson students should:1. Learn the arrangement and function of parts in the

frog.2. Compare frog anatomy to human anatomy.

Materials Anatomical Model of a Frog. Available from NationalTeaching Aids, Inc.reference materials for student research on frog anat-omy

Instructional procedure 1. Condense and simplify thelist of parts included withthe model to make a list for the students. By lottery orother means, assign each student or pair of studentstheir own part from that list.

2. Have students research their assigned part and writedown the answers to tiiese research questions:

a) Where can the part be found in a frog?b) What is the main function of the part?c) Are there any major differences between thispart in a frog and a human (if human anatomy hasbeen studied)?

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3. Reconstruction:The teacher lists the parts on a blackboard or over-head projector; students have their plastic part at theirdesks. The plastic board for the frog is set up so thateveryone can see it. The teacher asks the students todecide which of them has the part that will go into thefrog first. (Students make all the decisions in thisexercise; the teacher simply provides guidance. If thestudents make a mistake, they have to remove theparts and begin again.)

As each part is placed on the board, the studentwho researched it explains to the class the answers toresearch questions 2b and 2c. The class should takenotes.

4. When the frog has been reconstructed and all re-search questions have been answered, the studentscan take a Frog Quiz, consisting of the research ques-tions. Students should be allowed to use the notesthey took in class.

Additional activities 1. Divide the class into two (or more) teams. After somepractice, use a stopwatch to determine which teamcan put the frog together faster. Accuracy is impor-tant: add a penalty of extra seconds for each mistakein reconstruction.

2. The teacher should secretly remove parts and thenask each team of students to determine which ones aremissing. Give extra points to the team that can explainwhat will happen to the frog without those parts.

Teacher information The frog model can be ordered from Nat lfmal TeachingAids.

The pieces are easy to care for and can be replaced on anindividual basis from NTA's "organ bank."

The information sheets that come with the frog provide abrief description of each part's function and explainexactly how to reassemble the frog.

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Lesson title: ri.,:te Perch:Model Dissection & Imitation

By: Rea lista RodrivezFairfax County Public Schools,6525 Montrose Street, Fairfax, Vir-ginia 22312; (703) 941-8404

Grade level

Objectives

Materials

Teaching tips

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This activity is based on the Biosmount preparation ofthe perch. This model is an actual perch dissected to showits internal organs. The lesson teaches the external andinternal anatomy of a perch. Students will use an organpuzzle to apply their knowledge about the anatomy ofperch.

Grade 7 life science, grade 10 biology.

At the end of this lesson, students should be able to:1. Examine and identify the external features of a repre-

sentative of the bony fish, Class Osteichthyes.2. Describe the functions of bony fish body structures.3. Describe the adaptations the perch possesses that al-

low it to live in an aquatic environment.4. Trace the pathway of food, blood and air through the

perch.5. Graphically and creatively represent perch anatomy

using the organ puzzle. (Directions to make the organpuzzle are list', 1 in teaching tips).

6. Summarize facts learned about the perch throughgraphic organizers (diagrams, concept maps), draw-ings, poetry, music and other means.

7. Investigate the structural and functional interactionsof the different organ systems.

Biosmount prepara tion of perch injected with two colorsto show afferent and efferent arteries. Available fromCarolina Biological Supply Company. (1 Biosmountmay be adequate for a class)

teacher-made organ puzzle

This lesson may take two class periods: the first for usingthe Biosmount, the second for assembling the organpuzzle and reporting observations made at a pet storeor fish market.

To prepare the organ puzzle:Using a textbook diagram(s) showing the perch'sorgans, draw the organs on a sheet of unlined paper.

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Outline the drawings with a thick black marker andlabel each organ. Duplicate the original sheet(s) asneeded and cut each one out. Label each with anumber or letter. Put this label on the outside of anenvelope in bold print; put a complete set of organs fora system inside. Give each team an envelope.

Instructional procedure 1. Have students examine the Biosmount preparation ofthe perch. Two colors identify the afferent and efferentarteries of the gills. Identify the external and internalparts shown.

2. Discuss the functions of the following perch parts:External varts: dorsal fins, caudal fin, pelvic fin,

anal fin, lateral surface, operculum, urogenital open-ing.

Internal parts: swim bladder, mouth, esophagus,stomach, intestine, rectum, gall bladder, liver, pyloriccaeca, heart, atrium, ventricle, kidney, urinary blad-der, ovary, testes. (A textbook is a good source ofinformation.)

3. Using the organ puzzle provided for each group ofstudents, ask them to position in sequence the circula-tory, digestive, excretory and respiratory systems asdirected.

4. Students should confer with their lab partnersas to thecomposition and arrangement of each of the systems.Use the Biosmount perch and the textbook as refer-ences.

5. Outside class activity: Do an observation-comparisonstudy of different types of fish by visiting a fish/petstore with a variety of aquaria. Compare the behaviorand body structure of two or three types of fish. Asupermarket's fish section could also serve as a placeof observation. Write down your observations foryour report in class.

Evaluation 1. After the students work on their organ puzzle indi-vidually and in groups, synthesize facts and informa-tion. Request students' assistance in projecting col-ored transparency organs (cut out according to theirshapes) in the correct sequence.

2. If a Biosmount of a dogfish is available, ask students toview both preparations, then list characteristics ofeach. Draw a Venn diagram (two identical geometricshapes that partially overlap; the overlapping areashould be shaded-see Figure 2.1) or a different type of

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Extension/enrichmentactivities for students

graphic organizer to list the similarities and differ-ences between Class Chondrichthyes and Class Os-teichthyes. Have students list the characteristics thetwo fish have in common in the shaded area and thediffering characteristics in the outer areas. This couldbe expanded to include three or more circles for moreanimal comparisons.

1. Collect different types of fish scales from your local fishmarket and affix labels to baby food jars to identify thefish from which the scales came. Preserve them in thejars with water for about a week. Using a stereomicro-scope, ask the class to examine the scales and hypothe-size as much information as possible about the anat-omy, physiology and environment of the fish.

2. Make models to represent the parts of the fish. Usecommercial Plaster of Paris, clay, or make a three-di-mensional paper sculpture.

3. Corr poem or informational rap song. This canbe done by listing all the important terms that refer tothe anatomy of the perch, then writingsentences thatrhyme. Some type of beat/rhythm could be threadedinto them. Tape (either audio or video) your renditionor perform it live before the class, then share it withother classes,

cartilaginousskeleton

gill slits

streamlinedshape

tins

Chondrichthyes

bonyskeleton

coveredgills

Osteichthyes

Figure 2.1. Venn diagram showing some similarities and differences between Class Chon-drichthyes and Class Osteichthyes.

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Lesson title: Studying Human AnatomyUsing Student-Made Models

By: Alton BiggsFelicia Perry

Allen High School, P.O. Box 1017,601 East Main Street, Allen, Texas75002; (214) 727-0400

Grade level

Objectives

Materials

Instructional procedure

This activity requires that students spend four weeksresearching and constructing their assigned organ or organsystem model. These models are then described before theclass. A term paper can also be assigned. The teacher shouldprovide a summary bringing together the models of sys-terns done by students. This activity can be used as analternative to dissection of rats or fetal pigs.

Grade 10 biology.

1. To manipulate materials to enhance perceptual andspatial learning.

2. To simulate the anatomy of a human organ or system.3. To relate the anatomy of a human organ or system to its

function.4. To relate the anatomy of a human organ or system to

other organ systems in the human body.

O commercially prepared classroom modelsO student-prepared classroom modelsO drawings, photographsO audiovisual material such as 16 mm films, VHS tapes

and slidesO other materials supplied by students to complete project

1. This is a research project, so class activities will pro-ceed as usual while students work on their models.

2. Students will be given four weeks to research andprepare their models.

3. During the first week students decide which organ orsystem they will construct. Students may form groupsof not more than three to workon a single model. Theymay also use any material available and suitable forthe model.

4. Before beginning the production phase, studentsshould do as much outside research as possible by re-ferring to commercially prepared classroom models,drawings, photographs, films, charts and diagrams.

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Summary & evaluation

z

5. Students will complete a summary paper to go withtheir model and will make an oral presentation. Modelsmust be sturdy enough to use in the classroom. If themodel is made of a material that will degrade biologi-cally, the student should find ways to preserve themodel.

After students have discussed and viewed all models,a summary lecture will be given by the teacher emphasiz-ing the complementary relationship of structure and func-tion. Students will also be given an opportunity to rate theprojects' merits and suggest alternatives and changes.

Figure 2.2. Student-made model of lungs.

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Lungs

1. Trachea2. Upper Lobe3. Middle Lobe4. Lower Lobe5. Bronchus6. Bronchial Tubes7. Terminal Bronchiole8. Alveoli

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B. Films as Alternatives

Filmstrips, films and videotapes can be used to teachanatomy and physiology. They can be replayed manytimes, making them preferable to animal experimentationwhich would require the use of additional animals in orderto repeat a procedure (Russell & Burch 1959, p. 65). Manysubjects such as ecology and animal behavior virtuallydemand the use of a film since classroom and field experi-ences are necessarily limited. The following lessons areexamples of how films can be incorporated into lessons thatemphasize critical thinking as well as factual knowledge.

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Lesson title: A Study of the Relationship BetweenStructure & Function of the riumanOrganism Using the Videotape"The Incredible Machine"

By: Kathleen FrameBishop O'Connell High School,6600 Little Falls Road, Arlington,Virginia 22213; (703) 237-1400

This lesson is built around the videotape "The Incred-ible Machine," a National Geographic Society film. Ratherthan dissecting a rat or fetal pig, teachers can use this videoto explore mammalian systems. The lesson provides a list oftopics and where they can be found in the video andsuggestsa number of activities for students to dobeforeandafter viewing the film.

Grade level C. .de 10 biology.

Objectives 1. To view the structures of the integumentary, sensory,respiratory, circulatory, digestive, muscle,skeletal andreproductive systems.

2. To relate the structure to the function of the abovesystems.

3. To appreciate the relationship between structitre andfunction within the human body.

Materials VHS machine26-inch video monitorvideotape "The Incredible Machine," produced by the

Nationai Geographic Society and Wolper Produc-tions (1975).

human torso (optional)human skeleton (optional)

Teachin6 tips

2

1. Allow 60 minutes for yourself to preview this program.2. Structures and organ systems described in the video:

external anatomy thermoregulationskin digestive systemskeletal system sensory systemvision bipedal locomotionhearing reproductive systemvoice box developmentrespiratory system cell-t:ssue studycirculatory system brain biofeedbackimmune system

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3. The photography is beautiful and the explanations arebrief and interesting.

4. The video may be shown in its entirety or in smallsections to introduce or reinforce material learnedabout human systems.

5. Assign students to read about one or two organ sys-tems (corresponding to the sequence of the tape) foreach class meeting.

6. You might need to use seven days to teach with thefilm. With considerable depth and allowing for stu-dent participation, you may reasonably finish twoorgan systems per class period.

Instructional procedure I. Using the model of the human torso and the skeleton,describe to students the body design of the skcletaland visceral systems. If the models are not available,you may use a chart or the diagram in their textbook.

2. Outline on the board the following organ systems: in-tegumentary, sensory, respiratory, circulatory, im-mune, thermoregulatory, excretory, digestive, mus-cular, skeletal, reproductive and nervous.Special topicssuch as tissue and organ development, brain bio-feedback, cell tissue study and physical strain in bodybuilding can be discussed as they relate to the organsystem.

3. Begin by reviewing the homework on the organ sys-tem. Have students write on the board the structuresincluded in that day's organ system. This will serve asa checklist.

4. Show the film and pause whenever a structure isshown or defined. Reinforce by repeating the ideas inthe film or asking a question.

5. Proceed with the film using adequate pauses andprompts as needed. Stop the film when students havequestions on a certain statement.

6. After studying each organ system have students writea short paragraph explaining how this particular or-gan system or structure(s) helps one survive.

7. In addition to #6, assign students to read about theorgan system that will be shown during the next class.

8. After all the segments of the film have been shown,conduct a discussion on the beauty of design and thecomplementarity of structure and function found inthe human body.

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Evaluation Depending upon their learning style, have studentschoose one of the following:1. Write a fictional short story about a technological

breakthrough that will make the human body moreefficient and invincible to pathogenic microbes.

2. Choose the best organ system in your body in terms ofhelping you adapt and survive. Describe why.

3. Construct a model of the muscles and the skeletalsystem that demonstrates how they coordinate move-ment.

4. Create a skit/dramatization depicting the followingideas (this should be done in a group):

a) Importance of the immune system.b) Harmful substances and their effectson the nerv-ous system.c) Bio-feedback system in the human body.d) Tissue-organ development.

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Lesson title: "The Frog Inside-Out (Parts I & II)"

By: Rea lista RodriguezFairfax County Public Schools,6525 Montrose Street, Fairfax, Vir-ginia 22312; (7(X) 941-8404

This lesson is based on a two-part videotape intendedas a predissection lesson or an alternative to dissection.When used before dissection it will ensure that studentsperform accurate and complete dissections.

Grade level Grade 10 biology.

Objectives The students should:In Part I:1. Observe and interpret the behavior of two different

types of living frogs.2. Observe the two species' responses to their environ-

ment.3. Compare and contrast the frogs' external structures

and their functions.4. List adaptations that enable the frog to live both in

water and on land.5. Identify the major characteristics ofa typical amphib-

ian.6. Trace a frog's life cycle.7. Compare and contrast a frog with a toad.

In Part II:1. Locate and describe the frog's external and internal

anatomy.2. Demonstrate the interconnections among organs that

make up each of the systems.3. Interrelate the structure and function of organs.4. Examine certain cells and tissues undermicroscopes.5. Probe the length, muscular composition and move-

ment of the frog's legs and relate them to their func-tions.

6. Make a list of the many interesting species of frogs,their habitats and their uniqueness.

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Materials videotape of "The Frog Inside-Out (Parts I and II),"by Instructivision. The videotape can be orderedfrom Carolina Biological Supply Company.

4 VHS machine26-inch video monitormodel of frog or Biosmount (optional)

?; terrarium with live frogs (some suggestions are treefrogs, bullfrogs and the African clawed frog)

4 aquarium with tadpoles

Teaching tips 1. The videotapes are quite detailed and time-consum-ing, especially Part II. You may want to divide eachpart into two showings.

2. Introduce an activity after each half of Part I by doinga concept map and a Venn diagram.

3. The videotape (Parts I and II) may require four or fiveclass periods.

Instructional procedure

C3tood

Part I:1. Have students examine frogs' behavior by observing

them in an aquarium/terrarium setting for one week.In a journal, record their breathing rates, eye move-ments, feeding habits, locomotion and other behav-iors. Divide the class into groups of five students tointerpret observations. Exchange information withone another regarding the specific frog's behavior.Discuss general observations with the whole class.

2. Students should watch the videotape. Afterward, havethe class examine a Biosmount prepared frog or amodel. Students should identify the major organs.

3. Ask students to make a concept map of the frog'sexternal and internal features. The teacher could pres-ent an incomplete one for students to complete in classor as a homework assignment (Figure 2.3).

Figure 2.3. Example pfa coneep! map.46

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smoothskin

powerfulleaps

4. Ask students to construct a Venn diagram (with twocircles) to demonstrate features that allow frogs toadapt to live in water, on land and in both areas. Asimilar diagram could be used to compare a frog anda toad (Figure 2.4).

lay eggsin water

tadpoles

roughskin

smallhops

Frogs ToadsFigure 2.4. Example of a VennsliagrAtn for frogs and toads.

Note: Be sure provisions are made for the proper care oflive frogs after observationor release them into a proper en-vironment.

Part II:1. Give one preserved frog to each team of two students.

Have them examine the externalstructures and meas-ure the length of the frog's body and its legs. Recorddata on a chart. Discuss how the structure of the frog'shind legs helps it escape predators.

2. Students should open the preserved frog'smouth anddraw the parts found. With your partner imagine howa frog eats and how the mouth parts are used. Shareyour hypothesis with the group to yoqr right.

3. After viewing "The Frog Inside-Out (Part II)," dividethe class into eight groups of three to four studentseach. Write down the namesof the followingeight sys-tems, one per page:

ext ::rnal anatomy circulatory systemskeletal system excretory systemdigestive system nervous systemrespiratory system reproductive system

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Have one student from each group pick a piece ofpaper; the system written on the paper becomes theirgroup assignment. Using the cooperative learningstrategy, students prepare to present an oral report ontheir assigned topic. Visual aids and creative deliveryof information should be encouraged. Drawings, simu-lations, rhymes or cartoons could be used. Studentpresentations may be evaluated based on: accuracy ofinformation, creativity of instruction and cooperationof all group members. Preserved frogs for this exerciseshould be reused year after year.

4. Discuss with the class a frog's anatomy compared tothat of a human.

Evaluation Prepare a report, a mobile, or a stabile on the life cycle of afrog.

Enhancement/enrichment

activities 1. Raise tadpoles in the classroom. Prepare a 20-gallontank for tadpoles and a 20-gallon tank to be used laterwhen the frogs have metamorphosed. Assign a stu-dent to record brief observations (for example: "thetails have disappeared") daily on a blackboard. Therest of the class makes individual detailed observa-tions and records them in their journals.

2. A fabric sculpture of a frog with internal and externalfeatures could be fashioned out of cloth, some type of

steners and pillow stuffing. The ventral area couldmade "dissectable" by using Velcro, snaps or but-

tons. The internal organs could be made movable byputting bits of Velcro on strategic areas where otherorgans would be attached in a true-to-life arrange-ment. (A commercial model, Ribbit, is available fromSCI DEAS. )

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C. Interactive Computer & Video Programs

Computer-assisted learning and interactive videoprograms offer great possibilities for reducing, replacingand refining the use of animals in education (Dewhurst, etal. 1988). These programs also have advantages from apedagogical point of view, as many of them encouragecritical thinking, allow students to workat their own paceand remove student passivity associated with many tradi-tional teaching methods.

Computer programs usually are designed as tutorialson a particular subject or as simulations ofa procedure suchas dissection. When computers are combined with video(as in Interacti ve Video Technology), therange of programsbecomes endlessly varied. The following lessons illustratethe variety of software available to teachersand the versa-tility of Interactive Video Technology.

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Lesson title: Tutorial Using the Computer Program"Anatomy of a Shark"

By: Kathleen FrameBishop O'Connell High School,6600 Little Falls Road, Arlington,Virginia 22213 (703) 237-1400

Grade level

Objectives

Materials

Teaching tips

50

This lesson is bas ..1 on a computer program thatdemonstrates the external anatomy and the skeletal, circu-latory and nervous systems of a shark. Each system can bestudied using a lesson, probe, game or quiz format. Work-sheets are included with the disk. It requires about 20minu tes of teacher pre-lab and 45 minu tes of students' time.The accompanying teacher guide suggests some additionalactivities that would reinforce the program.

Grade 10 biology.

This tutorial will help students to:1. Locate the structures of the shark.2. Access information on the function of the structures of

the shark.3. Reinforce the knowledge of structures and functions

via an information bank of their descriptions and agame format.

4. Evaluate understanding of structures and functionsthrough a quiz format.

Apple He computer 48K, 1 disk drive. One to twostudents per computer.

"Marine Life: Anatomy of a Shark" (0 1986). Availablefrom Ventura Educational Systems.

worksheets from lessons #1-#4 in the user's manual.These are found after page 14 in the manual.

1. The external anatomy and the skeletal, circulatoryand nervous systems of the shark are included in thisprogram. Each system may be studied by one of thefollowing four formats: lesson, probe, game or quiz.Portions of the program take a while to load. Thelesson section gives a tutorial of structares, while theprobe section gives a detailed description of structureand function. The games section has threemodes"Identify," "Scramble" and "Wordsearch." Inthe "Identify" mode the studentcan choose whether toreceive clues, decide the order of questions and select

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an ability level (rookie, apprentice, or expert)."Scramble" gives an option of 10, 20, or 30 terms andis a timed exercise. In "Wordsearch" students may usea word list to solve the puzzle. In the quiz mode thestudent is given a percentage score and may retake thequiz if necessary.

2. The program may not be copied and is to be used ona single machine. Lab packs with multiple copies areavailable from Ventura Educational Systems.

3. This lesson could be used individually or in teams oftwo students. It may also be used as a reinforcementafter a lesson on shark anatomy using models, chartsand a film.

Instructional procedure 1. Assign students to research the shark's evolutionaryadvantages as illustrated by its structures and physio-logical adaptations.

2. Conduct a class discussion on the anatomy of theshark: how it is similar and different from the anatomyof other vertebrates.

3. Allow the students enough time to work through thelesson and probe portions individually.

4. Have them reinforce the information they have learnedthrough the game formats and evaluate their under-standing of the shark's anatomy with the quiz portionof the program.

5. When they feel they have mastered the material, havethem evaluate their understanding by completing theworksheets for Lessons #144.

Evaluation 1. Discuss the shark's advantages for evolutionary sur-vival as compared to other vertebrates.

2. Conduct a discussion of accuracy in the portrayal ofsharks in the movie "Jaws."

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Lesson title: "Visifrog:Vertebrate Anatomy": StructureLE Function of a Typical Vertebrate

By: Kathleen FrameBishop O'Connell High School,6600 Little Falls Road, Arlington,Virginia 22213; (703) 237-1400

Grade level

Objectives

Materials

Teaching tips

52

This lesson is based on a computer program that takesstudents through the structures ofa frog. It includes severaldifferent activities such as "Identification Game," "SlideShow" and "Data Retrieval," in addition to a "Quiz Ma-chine" that students take to see how they are doing in theprogram. Activity sheets come with the disk and can beused alone or with a live frog (for observation, not dissec-tion). The program has some flaws and requires about 90minutes of teacher preview before assigning it to students.

Grade 10 biology.

At the end of this program students will be able to:1. Identify structures of the musculature, digestive, nerv-

ous, cardiovascular, urogenital and skeletal systemsof a typical vertebrate using a game format.

2. Describe the function of the structures of the listedorgan systems.

?; Apple II Plus, He, lIc, 64K or Commodore 64 computer"Visifrog: Vertebrate Anatomy." Available from Ven-tura Educational Systems (1984, 1986, 1988)

6 Handouts:1. List of structures and associated functions thatstudents will need to know2. Activity sheets #1-#6 and #14 (included withdisk)3. Operation instructions

1. Notes about the computer program:a) In the musculature system section it takesa whileto access data.b) In the digestive, nervous, urogenital and cardio-vascular sy:tems, the graphics are blurry and thestructures are difficult to see (e.g., the cutaneousarteries in the skin). A handout would be useful tostudents.c) Structures in the skeletal systemare seen clearly.

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2. A list of the structures and associated functions thotstudents should know would be productive. Somematerial is much too detailed for a seventh grader oreven a Biology I student.

3. The program itself does not contain directions as towhat keys are used to ask for help, quit, etc. Thisinformation is found only in the manual. To be mostbeneficial to students, a short typed list of commandsshould be included with the program.

4. The "Data Retrieval" portion is a good tutorial.5. If students are to use the quiz portion, include a

handout with directions on how it operates.6. In the "Quiz Machine" a % score is kept at the lower

portion of the screen. Students are always aware ofwhere they stand and are competing only againstthemr...!-Ives. When a wrong answer is given, studentsgo to a diagram and then onto an explanation ifdesired. If students are unsure about an answer, theymay use the H key for help for additional information.Again, this is not given in the program, only in themanual.

7. Activity sheets are included with the program. Oneincludes observations of a real frog.

8. The disk may not be copied, but extra disks may bepurchased.

9. One to two students per screen may work on the"Identification Game," "Slide Show" and "Data Re-trieval" portions. However, for the "Quiz Machine"there should be only one student per screen. Thestudents may work cooperatively in answering the"Identification Game."

10. This is an involved computer program. The teachershould preview the different parts of the programbefore it is used.

11. The program may require two to three class periods tofinish.

Instructional procedure 1. Assign specific structures for students to researchusing several references. Have them write a descrip-tion of the structure and its function. This will be veryuseful as they work through the computer program.

2. Review with students the commands for the program.3. Allow time for students to read the photocopied activ-

ity #14 from the Visifrog teacher'sguide. In the interestof time, this may be assigned as homework.

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4. Allow students to work in pairs to complete the"Identification Game" portion of the computer pro-gram.

5. After the students have identified the structures ontheir activity sheets to their satisfaction, they maycontinue with the "Data Retrieval" portion of theprogram.

6. As a review, students may wish to individually viewthe "Slide Show" portion of theprogram which showsall six systems.

Evaluation I. Students may evaluate their understanding of theparts of a frog using the "Parts Identification" sectionof the program independently. Any student that re-ceives a low score after going through this shouldreview the material and do this section of the programagain.

2. Students may evaluate their understanding of thefunctions of the frog's structures by doing the "QuizMachine" portion of the program. When an incorrectanswer is given, the student checks the computerdiagram and, if desired, the explanation.

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Lesson title: Using the Computer Simulation"Operation: Frog" as anAlternative to Dissection

By: Kathleen FrameBishop O'Connell High School,6600 Little Falls Road, Arlington,Virginia 22213; (703) 237-1400

Grade level

Objectives

Materials

Teaching tips

This lesson is built around the computer program"Operation Frog." It requires at least an hour of teacherpreview and preparation ofexplanatory handouts for stu-dents. It is intended to simulate dissection with the properdissection tools. It will require at least three days of stu-dents at the computer plus time for pre- and post-labactivities.

Grade 10 biology.

With this simulation students should be able to:1. Learn the proper use of dissection instruments.2. Know the function of organs in the frog.3. Orient organs to their original positions in the frogas

part of the simulation activity.

;5 Apple II Plus, He, lIc, 64K or Commodore 64 computer(ideal number is one to two students per computer)

"Operation: Frog." Available from Scholastic Soft-ware, Inc. (1984)

instrument use instruction sheet (made by the teacher)"frog fact" sheet (included in teacher's manual)live frog with proper habitatHow to Dissect (Berman 1986, p. 134)

Optional: 26-inch monitor ifused as a demonstration

1. The teacher must review this program beforehand.There are no instructions included in the programitself. Instructions are included in the teacher's man-ual. Be certain to reserve a t least an hour to review thisprogram.

2. The instrument functions must be explained first.Refer students to page 21 of the teacher's manual orprepare a handout on how to use the "instruments."

3. Once dissection begins, students cannot go on to an-other part of the program. It takes approximately onehour to dissect and study the accompanying explana-tions.

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Instructional procedure

56

4. The operation of the keys, mouse and jockey stickrequire a certain amount of dexterity. Be certain thatstudents do not become involved with the operation ofthe computer and overlook the objectivesof the lesson.

5. Since the heart simulation does not include an expla-nation, the teacher should be prepared to explain whatis occurring.

6. The heart simulation may be used as a separate dem-onstration by the teacher to show circulation.

7. Recognize the limitations of the software and thecomputer. Read notes regarding this on page 7 of theteacher's manual.

8. One or two students per screen allows each student areasonable amount of involvement.

Pre-lab activity:1. Show a film on how to dissect a frog. You may use

"Frog Inside Out (Part II)."2. Distribute frog facts sheet from "Operation Frog"

teacher's manual.

pay_LI

I. Ask students which fact they found to be the mostinteresting on the "Frog Fact" sheet. Discuss why.

2. List the instruments used in a dissection. Describehow each is used and have students list them in theproper sequence.

3. Discuss the steps involved in an actual frog dissection.4. Discuss how a computer simulation of dissection

would be different from an actual dissection. Includepros and cons.

5. Have students practice picking up and using the in-struments in the computer program (some will bemore adept than others, but allow all sufficient time).

6. Once students are able to use the instruments, havethem practice for a few minutes how to find demon-strations and text in the computer program.

Du/7. Have students begin the computer dissection. Ask

them to use the computer text, simulations and draw-ings to make their own notes abou torgan function andorientation.

8. Show students how to save their program if they donot complete it that day.

9. Students should save program before the periodends.

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Pay310. Have students retrieve their programs and complete

their dissections.11. Upon completion of their dissections, have tidents

reconstruct their frogs. A quiz score will be given bythe computer to evaluate the student's performance.

Post-lab activity1. Compare/contrast the computer dissection to an ac-

tual dissection performed on videotape.2. Have students construct a model of a frog and its

internal organs.

Evaluation Give students a quiz based on frog anatomy.

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Lesson title: "Frog Dissection":An Alternative to Dissection

By: Kathleen FrameBishop O'Connell High School,6600 Little Falls Road, Arlington,Virginia 22213; (703) 237-1400

Grade level

Objectives

Materials

Teaching tips

58

This lesson can serveas an enhancement to a dissectionor as an alternative. P is based on a computer tutorial con-sisting of parts identification and student-controlled dis-section. The lesson provides some pre- and post-lab activi-ties and the students can quiz themselves as they proceedthrough the program.

Grade 7 life science; grade 10 biology.

1. To describe the orientation points of an organism(dorsal, ventral, etc.).

2. To define the vocabulary words associated with frogdissection.

3. To locate and describe the mouth structures of a frog.4. To locate and describe the internal structures of the

frog.5. To become familiar with the guidelines of a frog dis-

section.6. To evaluate knowledge gained from the computer

activity through the use of computer-generated selftests.

6 labeled drawing of frog anatomy from textbooks6 Apple II Plus, IF., lIc, 64K or Commodore 64 computer6 "Frog Dissection" by Larry Newby. Available from

Cross Educational Software (0 1984).6 handouts:

1. Vocabulary words in user's manual (p. 3).2. List of mouth and internal structures in user's man-ual (pp. 4-5).

6 model of a frog6 How to Dissect (Berman 1986, p.134)

1. Allow at least 20 minutes to preview this program.2. This program could be a strong reinforcement to a

demonstration of a dissection or could serve as analternative when used with the instructional materi-als. A suggestion: Use a model frog that can be takenapart. Diagrams showing internal organs may be usedalong with the tutorial.

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3. The program is well written, user friendly and doesnot require memorization of extensive directions.

4. One or two students per screen works best.5. It takes about 20 minutes to preview this program and

90 minutes of student time to complete it.

Instructional procedure 1. Assign students to define the vocabulary listed onpage 3 of the user's manual.

2. Review vocabulary and the list of structures found inthe tutorial. When students sufficiently understandthe vocabulary, allow them to progress through theprogram "Frog Dissection" in the following manner.

3. Have the students execute #1 from the Main Menu,using their own bodies to verify the orientation points.

4. Give students time to quiz themselves on the vocabu-lary list on the screen. Tell them to refer back to thehomework list only when unsure of a definition.

5. When finished with 111 from the Main Menu, havestudents select #2 from the Main Menu.

6. As students are working on the Main Menu, instructthem to locate the structures on the model before them.

7. After locating the structures, have students recall eachone's function. If students have difficulty recalling anyfunctions, refer them to the listing of functions in theprogram. The students can follow this procedure forboth the mouth and the internal structures.

8. When #2 from the Main Menu is completed, studentsreturn to the Main Menu and select #3.

9. When the students go through the student-controlleddissection, the following instructions may be given:

a) Note the description of the dissection processand the precautions given.b) If at any time during the "dissection" you do notlearn the function of the organ, refer back to thediagram to "see" the organ being described.c) In the last section, note the detail of the male andfemale reproductive systems.

10. Upon completion of #3 from the Main Menu, if stu-dents feel able to take a quiz on the material from theprogram, have them go back to the Main Menu andselect #4.

Post-Activity/discussion 1. Have students review with their lab partner the orien-tation, vocabulary and function of parts of the mouthand internal structures, location of mouth and internalstructures, and steps and precautions in dissection.

' KS

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2. Compare the computer dissection to an actual dissec-Pon performed on videotape or film.

Evaluation 1. Students may evaluate their understanding of theparts of a frog dissection with the first test, Parts Iden-tification. If any students receive a low score aftergoing through this, they should return to 412 on theMain Menu and review.

2. Students may evaluate their understanding of thefunctions of the frog's internal and mouth structuresfrom the multiple choice and true/false self-tests.

3. Students may evaluate their understanding of theprocess of dissection and related precautions by list-ing the steps of an actual dissection.

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Lesson titic: "Interactive Frog Dissection"

By: Richard StraussMabel B. Kinzie

Curry School of Education, Uni-versity of Virginia, Charlottesville,Virginia 22903; (804) 924-0835

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The IBM InfoWindow system uses an IBM computer orIBM videodisc player that sends moving and still video tothe InfoWindow Display. Computer-generated images canbe superimposed on the video or displayed by themselveson the same InfoWindow touch screen. A mouse and key-board also may be used. The user determines the selection,sequence and pace of audio and video messages. The"Interactive Frog Dissection" videodisc demonstrates dis-section, allows students to practice and takes them througha frog layer by layer for an in-depth look at organ function.

Grade level Grade 10 biology.

Objectives 1. To learn and practice the techniques of dissection2. To locate the organs within the frog.3. To explain the function of each organ in the frog.

Materials IBM computer and videodisc player?; Info Window software

Strauss's "Intelactive Frog Dissection" videodisc

a --r:

i -..11 - ii..- t .- 4'14

- it .

Figure 2.5. Getting students used to the terminology used.

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Instructional procedure 1. Students should watch the first part of the videodisc,a narrated overview of the simulation that shows ahigh school student preparing for a dissection. Thelesson continues with a demonstration of the actualdissection followed by a brief review.

2. Students can practice each of the dissection steps byselecting them in the correct order and touching theappropriate places on the computer monitor to indi-cate where a particular action (such as pinning andcutting the frog) should be performed.

3. Students should watchthe second part of thevideodisc which dem-

Ionstrates how to locateeach of the major or-gans by going layer bylayer through the bodycavity of a male andfemale frog. It beginswith a view of theundisturbed organs,called "layer one."Organs then are shiftedand removed to gradu-ally reveal all the ma-jor organs at layers twothrough four, as fardown as thedorsal wallof thebodycavity.Dur-ing the demonstrationit is possible to request

information about each organ's function or repeat theportion that illustrates its location.

4. Students can practice locating organs on their own.Students first must identify the proper layer for ran-domly selected organs, then find particular organs ateach layer by touching them on the videodisc display.In the last step, students select the proper layer num-ber for specified organs. When a video image of thatlayer appears, students touch the correct organ.

I I I I I I

0 ' -II I I. I I

Figure 2.6. Practice in dissection procedure.

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Notes to teacher Develop an evaluation based on material students are tohave learned.

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Lesson title: A Hypermedia Program of the Frog: ALaboratory Dissection of RI 4 pipiens

By: Jean FossWestern Albemarle High School,Route 1, Box 425, Crozet, Virginia22932; (804) 823-4314

Using technologies such as a laser disc and player, anda Apple Macintosh computer with HyperCard and Hyper-Card Stack, teachers can create a lifelike simulation of dis-section called the Hypermedia program. A Hypermediasimulation on frog dissection has pedogogical advantages,including:1. students can see the dissection exactly as they would

if they were actually performing it,2. students can review the lesson any number of times,3. the teacher can be sure that the whole class sees the

same thing,4. students who object to dissection ca- also participate

using the same lesson. This alternative requires thatstudents who object to the dissection devote time andeffort comparable to that spent by those doing thedissection.

The laserdisc stack begins with a card that the teachermay use as a pre-lab on how to dissect. The lesson is dividedinto eight short segments, allowing the teacher to deter-mine the rate at which the lesson is taught. The five cardsare diagrams of the:

1. digestive system2. heart3. male reproductive and urinary systems4. female reproductive and urinary systems5. respiratory system and oral cavity.

These cards may be used with or without the laserdiscattached. The names of the organs are hidden until thestudent clicks on the organ with the pointer. The videodiscsimultaneously shows the organ, clearly identifiel in thedissected frog and, optionally, the organ's function. For ex-ample, the card on the heart shows the heart beating; thelungs are filled and emptied slowly when the button of therespiratory system card is clicked.

The videodisc footage in this lesson was taken from adissected preserved frog and a pithed frog. This programapplies both the reduction and ultimately the replacementgoals of alternatives to the use of animals.

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Grade level Grade 10 biology.

Objectives Since this program can be used as a dissection pre-lab andguide or as a complete alternative to dissection, the stu-dents should be able to:1. Learn the proper way to dissect through the demon-

stration shown in the videodisc.2. Exercise more care and skill in dissection (for those

who choose to dissect).3. Visualize the location and appearance of the organs in

vertebrates.

Materials 4 laserdisc playerApple Macintosh computer with HyperCard

4 cables to connect laserdisc player to MacintoshHyperCard stack

4 large monitor?; "Interactive Frog Dissection" laserdisc (Strauss &

Kinzie)

For students who opt to perform dissection, the followingequipment should be available:dissecting kit with scalpel probesforceps dissecting panscissors dissecting pins/needles

Teaching tips This lesson may be used as a demonstration and guide forstudents who choose to dissect and as a complete alternatelesson for those who object to dissection.1. As a pre-lab demonstration, this lesson can show the

whole class how to do the dissection using the vide-odisc. The students will clearly see the safety precau-tions, equipment and proper procedure to dissect.

2. During the lab period the program can help locateorgans in the dissected frogs. Students who are ilotdoing the dissection will use the laserdisc to identifythe same organs and complete the same lab assign-ment as the rest of the class. This way, all students feelthey receive the same treatment.

3. The post-lab activity for both groups of students pro-vides a review and drill on the location and appear-ance of organs.

4. The time required for the complete programmay varyfrom three to four class periods, dependingon the stu-dents' pace.

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Instructional procedure 1. Set up the laserdisc player, Macintosh computer andmonitor. Set up the traditional frog dissection lab.

2. Demonstrate dissection process using the laserdisc.3. Do the dissection and set up the Hypermedia as a

Learning Station for those students not doing thetraditional dissection.

4. The next day, review the dissection using the laserdisc.Allow students to continue their dissection or workwith the Hypermedia programs at the Learning Sta-tion until students from both groups have finished thedissection and the program.

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Introduction 2nd incision

Preparation Muscle incision

Begin 2nd muscle incision1st Incision Final preparation

Figure 2.7. Main menu of the Hypermedia program.

Heart Circulatory SystemRight truncusarteriosus

Rightatri

Left truncusarteriosus Left

vane cave

Conus arterionu

VentriclePosteriorvane Cave

Ventral Surface

( Note... )Heart, beating

Rightvents cave

Right atrium

Sinus venosus

Dorsal Surface

tifnu' - Remote

Figure 2.8. HyperCard shows the parts of the frog's heart.

EvaluationUse the laserdisc, stack andlarge tor to present alab pia . ,cum that can beseen by all students. Itsadvantages are:

1. It doesn't require anhour before school to setup,2. There is no smell ordrying out of specimens,3. The videodisc pro-gram can be seen by allstudents at the same time.

AcknowledgmentsThe laserdisc program in-cludes lab preparation, dis-section procedures andorgan identification. It wasproduced by the collaboi a-ti ve efforts of Mabel Kinzie,Richard Strauss and WayneConnors of the Universityof Virginia and Jean Foss ofWestern Albemarle HighSchool, Virginia.

Those interested in learn-ing how to produce Hyper-media programs can write:

Alternatives to AnimalsP. O. Box 7177

San Jose, CA 95150

7S

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Lesson title: The Effects of Adrenalin on the Heart

By: Kathleen FrameBishop O'Connell High 3chool,6600 Little Falls Road, Arlington,Virginia 22213; (703) 237-1400

Grde level

Objectives

Materials

Teaching tips

Instructional procedure

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This lesson attempts to simulate the research experi-ence by showing students a film that is stopped at desig-nated points so they can discuss hypotheses and designexperiments. The film investigates the effect adrenalin hason a frog's heart. After viewing the film students shouldgather research from the school or public library to con-struct a chart of pharmacological chemicals.

Nut only does this technology reduce or eliminate theneed for animals in the classroom, it alsoencourages coop-erative learning which has been shown to have positiveeffects on both high and low ability learners. The highachievers from cooperative groups use a higher quality ofreasoning strategies and are more likely to develop skills inleadership, communication, decision making and conflictmanagement needed for future success in school and in acareer (BSCS Newsletter September 1989, p.1).

Grade 10 biology; advanced course in biology.

1. To review how hormones control body functions.2. To review the factors that control the beating of the

heart.3. To list the functions of adrenalin.4. To design an experiment that showsadrenalin's ef fects

on the heart in an emergency, in this case the captureof a frog from a pond.

monitor, 26-inch if possiblelaserdisc playervideodisc "The Frog," Optical Data Corporation (1989)

Allow 20 minutes to preview Chapters 14 and 25 on Side 5and Chapter 21 on Side 6.

The lesson may take 45 minutes.

1. Review how hormones control the coloration of frogs'skin. Show Frame 16835, Side 5 (Skin). Stop after "theskin becomes lighter in color" (Frame 19245).

2. Discuss how the heart beats. Start Frame 50352, Side 5(Beating heart, pacemaker).

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3. Summarize how hormones control bodily functions.4. Ask students why adrenalin is classified as a hormone.5. Have students share the information they found on

adrenalin, listing its major functions. Have them dis-tinguish between its role in an emergency and its rolein regulating normal body functions.

6. Have students hypothesize how and why adrenalinwould affect the heart rate and other bodily functionsof a frog being captured.

7. Show Chapter 21, Side 6, Stop after "less-immedia telynecessary functions like digestion."

8. Have students design experiments and make predic-tions as to how and why adrenalin affects the heart.Consider variables such as concentration of adrenalinand method of delivery of adrenalin.

9. Discuss designs of student experiments.10. Observe the effects of adrenalin on the beating heart.

Show the remainder of Chapter 21, Side 6.11. Refer to your students' hypotheses of adrenalin's ef-

fect on the heart. Develop generalizations about adrena-lin based on what they learned from the videodisc.

Post activity & discussion Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of observingthese functions in living organisms.

Evaluation Have students research various chemicals that are used toregulate heart activity. Design a chart showing the effect ofchemicals on the body, pros and cons for their use and theirinteraction with other body systems or drugs. Have stu-dents verify their chart with a pharmacist or doctor.

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D. Refinements of Dissection & Experimentation

After reevaluating the use of animals in biology class,some teachers may conclude that there is no substitute forthe presence of actual specimens in the classroom. Instead,they may wish to refine their existing procedures to betterreflect the view that all living organisms are worthy ofappreciation and respect. The following lessons are ex-amples of traditional techniques thathave been updated soas to inculcate humane attitudes toward animals.

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Lesson title: Squid: An Illustration of Adaptation/By: Lois Glassco*ckNorth Garland High School, 2109F,..,kinghant Road, Garland, Texas75042; (214) 494-8451

The scpid makes a good alternative to conventionaldissection because it is simple in structure, easy to obtainand can easi ly be cooked and eaten. By using fresh or frozensquid, you avoid the formaldehyde in preserved speci-mens. This lesson takes the student through an examina-tion of the squid and provides a recipe for "squid strips"that can be prepared in the classroom.

Grade level Grade 10 biology.

Objectives The student will be able to:1. Examine a squid, noting characteristics ofboth exter-

nal and internal anatomy.2. Formulate hypotheses about squid niche and habitat,

relating a particular structure to a survival strategy.3. Clean the mantle of the squid, which will becooked for

the student to taste.

Materials II frozen or fresh squid from a superma-ket/fish market/bait shop (keep refrigerated until ready to use; 4 lb.frozen block contains approximately 15 squid)

squid diagrampaper platesclean razor bladessoap, paper towelsdeep fat fryer or electric frying panoilbatter ingredients:a few lemons and limes cornmeal (optional)1 egg 1 T. baking powder1 c. flour 1 T. water

Teaching tips It is helpful to have a student assist in frying the strips. Youalso can ask students to bring in 1,--,Ionsand limes togo with the strips.

It iseasier to make the batter ahead of time re.ther than whilestudents are dissecting. For the batter, mix togetherone egg, one cup flour (cornmeal mixed wi th flouralsoworks well) and one tablespoon each of baking pow-der and water.

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Instructional procedure 1. Have students first wash their hands. Remind themthe squid will be cooked when the observations arecompleted.

2. Have studentscover their lab station withnewspaper.Make sure they work on a clean paper plate with aclean razor blade.

3. Tell students to rinse the squid in running water andexamine it. Each lab group should generate a list ofcharacteristics.

4. Explain that organisms must perform certain tasks inorder to live. These tasks include eating and avoidingbeing eaten. Begin 'to relate squid characteristics tothese tasks. Have students write the squid character-istics on the board.

5. Tell students to position the squid on the plateas theythink it would be positioned if it were moving throughthe water. Notice the coloration and shape of the squidand the position of its fins.

6. Have students turn their animal over and find thesiphon below the tentacles protruding from the collar.Using a razor, students should open the mantle belowthe siphon to expose the internal organs. The ink sacoften has a metallic sheen. It secretes ink to hide thesquid from predators and is used as an escape mecha-nism. The gills look like feathers and are centrallylocated. In mature individuals, most of the remainderof the cavity is filled with gonads. After comparingseveral squid you can begin to identify the maturefemales by the presence of eggs.

7. The shell of the mollusk is reduced and incorporatedin the upper mantle. In the mantle collar opposite thesiphon find the point that is the end of this shell or"pen." This is a stiff structure. Make a shallow 1 cmincision parallel to the pen. Carefully pull the penfrom the mantle. You will see that it runs the length ofthe animal's body, giving it the advantage of a flexibleinternal skeleton.

8. Use the pen to write your name with the ink from theink sac.

9. Have stud . nts examine the mantle carefully. Noticethe grooves and knobs that hold the mantle tightly inplace in the living animal. Realize that the squid takeswater into the mantle cavity to oxygenate th gills. Thesquid is also able to direct water from the mantle cavityin a powerful stream through the funnel to the outside(similar to the flight of an inflated balloon once air is

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Post-lab discussion

released). The squid i, able to control the direction thesiphon points and consequently control its movementthrough the water. Note the position of the externalfins.

10. Another point of interest is the complex eye, similar instructure to the vertebrate eye. It can be dissected tofind the lens. Ask students why a mollusk would needsuch an eye?

11. Collect the cleaned mantles and cut them into strips tobe dipped into batter and fried. Fresh squid is deli-cious with lemon or lime and salt. Make sure studentsclean lab stations and wash tables.

List the vital functions that an organism must perform tosurvive. How is the squid unique to perform eachtask? Why is that adaptation necessary for survival inthat habitat? One way to discuss this is to draw a tablewith three columns:

1. adaptation2. description3. survival advantage.

Another way to answer these questions is to draw theanimal in its habitat and illustrate its unique adapta-tions to its environment. Some might prefer to write astory about the life of a squid.

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Key to the Squid

a. arm f. siphon k. branchialb. tentacle retractor heartc. siphon g. anus I . vena cavad. mantle h. ink sac In. stomache. fin i. kidneys n. gonads

j. gill 0. caecum

2.9. Internal and external anatomy of the squid.

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Lesson title: Look at My Muscles ...Who's A Chicken?

By: Peter DeDeckerHastings High &hoot, 520 W.South St.,Hasthigs, Michigan49058; (616) 945-9591

Grade level

Objectives

Materials

Instructional procedure

Your neighborhood supermarket may be your bestsource of animal parts for a lesson in anatomy. The purposeof this investigation is to compare your arm to a chickenwing. How are your muscles and bones like those of achicken wing? How do they differ? How do mascles andbones work together to bring about movement?

Grade 10 biology.

1. Recognize the differences and the similaritiesbetweenyour arm and the wing of a chicken.

2. Infer how structure relates to function.3. Recognize the interrelationship between the muscles

and skeleton.

a package of chicken wings from the supermarketscalpelforcepsvinegarstopwatch

For introduction and motivation, begin with these briefstatements at the beginning of the activity:1. First, let's recognize how your arm works and realize

some things about muscle function. Muscles are at-tached to your bones by tough, non-stretching whitecord-like structures called tendons. Ligaments arevery much like tendons in their structure but theyfunction to hold one bone to another. Muscles do theirwork by getting shorter or contracting.

2. When you bend your arm to "make a muscle," that iscalled flexing your arm; the muscles used to bend yourarm are called flexors. The name of this flexor muscleis the biceps. When you straighten out your bent arm,the muscles you use are called extensors. The name ofthis extensor muscle is the triceps.

3. A muscle will get tired or become fatigued if youcontract it too many times without resting it.

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A. Your muscles1. Yu ye the students work in groups of two. One person

puts an arm on the table and the second places his/herarm so that the hand is on top of the first person's handand wrist. Both place their other hand around theirupper arm.

Ask students to describe what happens to theirupper arm muscles (biceps and triceps) as the firstperson tries to bend his/her arm and the partner triesto prevent that from happening.

Have students switch roles. Ask them to describethe differences they notice.

2. In this part of the exercise, time students' activity for30 seconds. Have them make a tight fist, then extendtheir fingers as far as they can. They should do this asfast as possible for 30 seconds. Ask students to:

a) describe what they feel.b) point out where they feel muscle fatigue.c) explain why the muscles fatigued where theydid.

B. Chicken wing

1. Instruct students to remove the skin from a chickenwing. Do not cut the muscles or destroy them in anyway.

2. The biceps mmde is on the front part of the upperwing; the triceps is located on the back part of theupper wing. Ask students to identify the muscles inthe upper part of the wing. Can they identify thebiceps muscle and triceps muscle? (You should helpthose who cannot.)

3. Have students hold the biceps muscle between theirthumb and forefinger on one hand and do the samewith the triceps muscle with their other hand. Instructstudents to pull on the triceps muscle and then on thebiceps muscle. Have them describe what happenswhen each muscle is pulled.

4. Ask students to locate and describe the function of the"white cords" attached to the enc., of these muscles.Guide students to infer to what-in addition to themuscle-the "cords" are attached.

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5. Give students these instructions:Startingat the midd le of the biceps, remove the musclefrom the humerus bone, but do not remove it where itattaches to the hones with the "white cords." Try tolocate where the biceps muscle attaches to the bones.Have students again pull on the muscle and try to rec-ognize what is happening to the bones. (The origin isthe muscle attachment to a bone that does not movewhen the muscle contracts and the insertion is theattached point to the movable bone). Ask students onwhich bone the biceps is attached.

6. Help students locate the nerve and blood vesselsalong the biceps muscle.

7. Remove all the muscles from the bones. Observe thehinge joint after the muscles have been removed.Observe how is it held together. Have students iden-tify what the "white cords" are attached to on bothends.

8. Have students cut the white cords at the back of thejoint until the joint is open from the back. Have themdescribe the ends of the bones. Put the bones togetherand move the joint. Ask students to explain why thisjoint cannot straighten out more than approximately180 degrees and therefore is classified as a hinge joint.Ask them how this joint differs from a ball and socketjoint.

9. Ask students to observe the ends of the bones andnotice a gray-white covering. Make a cut in this cover-ing and remove a small piece for closer examination.Ask students to name this material and explain how itdiffers from bone.

10. Have students remove most of the skin and musclefrom the remaining parts of the wing. Ask if theyrecognize the "wrist," "thumb" and "hand" portionsof the wing.

Evaluation Have students write a brief comparison of the musclesandbones of a chicken wing and the human arm. Have theminclude how they are the same, yet different.

Fu rther study Place one of the wing bones in a weak acid or vinegarsolution for five days. Explain what has happened to thebone. (Hint: Vinegar dissolves minerals).

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Chicken Wing

Muscles

Fused Carpals

Ulna

Humerus RadiusDigit

Metacarpals

OlecranonProcess

.--- Digit

Bones

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Lesson title: Structural & Behavioral Adaptationsof Felines

By: David GilmoreRocky Hill High School, RockyHill, CT 06067; (203) 529-2583

Grade level

The domestic cat is a classic example of semi-manipu-lated evolution. The companion animal we know today asthe cat is descended from wild varieties of felines thatoriginated probably in the Euro-African supercontinent.As it exists in its present form (Fe lis cattus), the domestic catdemonstrates a na tomical, physi ol ogicala nd behavioral fea-tures that can be enlightening to a beginning student ofbiology. This activity is intended as a weekend assignmentwith a follow-up discussion the next class day. Studentswho don't have a cat can team up with those who do.

Grade 7 life science; grade 10 biology.

Objectives The students should be able to:1. Become familiar with feline physiological responses

to various stimuli.2. Explain anatomical features in terms of what they

enable the cat to do.3. Compare physical parameters of cats' bodies.4. Examine evidence of eating preferences.5. Obtain experience measuring and recording physical

characteristics of a living higher order vertebrate.

Materials wit live catWe catnipwit cat muscular diagramfor cat skeleton diagramwit student chart

fie ruler or meter stickwr penlightwt cat food-wet, dry, treatwt sound stimuluswt chase stimulus

NOTE: In any experiment with a living animal, be certainto follow humane laboratory guidelines (see Appendix).

Instructional procedure 1. Record your cat's name.2. Spend a few minutes with your cat. Decide if it is in the

mood to be picked up and held.

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3. Place the cat on a table. Carefully examine major fea-tures of its external anatomy. Doesyour cat have anyunusual features?

4. Describe coat color(s).5. Record eye color(s).6. Gently examine your cat's feet.Doesit have more than

five toes on its forelimbs? On its hindlimbs?7. Record the number of major right eyebrow whiskers

(vibrissae).Record the number of left eyebrow whiskers.Record the number of right maxillary whiskers.Record the number of left maxillary whiskers.What is the adaptational advantage of whiskers?

8. Does the set of your cat's eyes cause it to gaze forwardor sideways?What is the adaptational advantage of this?

9. Does your cat seem to have a relatively elongated faceor a relatively pug face?Consult the skeletal diagram and record what skullbones contribute to this facial characteristic.

10. Carefully feel and check off the following bones onyour cat's body:

a. sagittal crest of skull*b. scapula*c. elbowd. cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral and caudalvertebrae*e. pelvic ilium*f. knee

Does it appear that any bones support the cat's ears?What is the upper bone of the forelimb?*What is the upper bone of the hindlimb?*

11. What bones does the cat walk on?12. Gently measure and record the length of your cat's

tail.What is the length of its vertebral column from firstcervical to last sacral vertebra (neckand torso spine)?What is the ratio of the cat's tail length to its bodylength?

13. Is your cat clawed on all four feet?Carefully extend a claw. What is the adaptationaladvantage of claws?To what foot bones is the claw attached?

*Ask these questions to grade 10 students after a lesson on thenames of the bones.

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14. Allow the cat to perform the following movements.Look up and record the names of the major musclesused to complete these movements:.

a. turn headb. jump up onto counterc. lift forelimb to paw at objectd. jump down to floore. any others that you notice

15. While someone else holds the cat relatively still, shinethe penlight very briefly in its eye. What effect doesthis have?Compare the shape of a cat's pupil to a human pupil.What adaptational advantage is there to this reflex?

16. Analyze the forefoot and hindfoot bones on thediagram. Gently palpate (feel) your cat's hindfoot andforefoot, identifying the locations of these bones.Compare the drawing of the cat's foot to theway yourcat's foot feels. Compare the length of the carpal,metacarpal, tarsal and metatarsal bones.

17. Carefully examine your cat's foot pads (tori). Howmany are on an anterior limb? Posterior limb?What are foot pads an adaptation for?What, if anything, can you tell of your cat's past byexamining the foot pads?

18. If possible, obtain a shedding hair from the darkerportion of the cat's body and put it in a plastic bag.Bring it to class to examine under a compound micro-scope for evidence of flea dust.

19. Have your partner make a clicking sound. Ascertainthe furthest distance that your cat will respond insome way to a click. Trials at several distances will beneeded. Responses may take the form of approach,avoidance, turning the head toward the sound, co*ck-ing an ear toward the sound, etc. Record distance.

20. Using your chase stimulus, determine the farthestdistance at which your cat will respond to the toy bypursuing it. Several trials at each distance will benecessary for reliable data. Record the distance onyour chart.

21. Place a small amount of dry cat food, a treat (notcatnip) and a teaspoon of wet canned cat food about 15cm apart on a paper towel, keeping your cat awayfrom it as you set up. Place your cat about 50 cm fromthe foods, away from distractions, and restrain it.

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Analysis /class discussion

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Make sure tne cat is aware of the presence of the food,then release it. Note carefully which food item the catsniffs first, second and third and which it eats first,second and third.

22. Sprinkle a little catnip directly under 0,e cat's nose.Allow it to interact with the catnip fc . minutes.Compare the cat's beha viors now to its beha viors priorto the exposure. Try some of the previous proceduresand record how the cat responds to them now.

23. This is an optional activity:Carefully examine your cat's teeth and tongue. Forwhat type of behaviorare these kinds of teethan adap-tation?Count the number of teeth in your cat's upper andlower jaw.What is the texture of your cat's tongue?What does this texture enable the cat to do?

1. a. Compare the class data for tail/torso ratios. List thecats' names in order from largest ratio to smallest.

b. Does the cat with the largest ratio necessarily havethe longest tail? Explain.

2. According to the class data, which cat pursues thechase toy from the farthest distance?

3. According to the class data, which cat takes notice ofsounds at the farthest distance?

4. Why is there variation in the data related to question2?

5. Discuss specific behaviors that you:a. Expected to see but didn't.b. Didn't expect to see but did.

Refer to specific parts of the procedure for each statementyou make.

6. What could have been influencing your cat's behav-iors?

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Cat's name

Cat Observation Chart

Unusual features

# right vibrissae

# left vibrissae

# right maxillary whiskers

# left maxillary whiskers

Coat color

Eye color

# toes on paws

Gazes forward sideways

Elongated / pug face

Skull bones:

Check off bones:

a. saggital crest of skull

b. scapula

c. elbow

d. cervical, thoracic, lumbar,

sacral and caudal vertebrae

Bones that cat walks on

Tail length

Vertebral column

Ratio: tail length to body length

e. pelvic ilium

1. knee (patella)

g. ear bones

h. forelimb bone

i. hindlimb bone

Claws on all 4 feet?

Adaptive value of claws

Claws attached to bones

Muscles required to:

a. turn head

b. jump up

c. lift forelimb

d. jump down

e. other movements (describe)

int int int int int int int int int Sat int *at int ifitOptional:

# teeth-upper jaw

#teeth-lower jaw

Adaptations of teeth

Tongue texture

Adaptation of texture

Effect of light

Comparative length of foot bones

# foot pads-front limbs

# foot pads-back limbs

Adaptation of foot pads

History of foot pads

Furthest distance-hearing response

Furthest distance-chase response

Food preference

Catnip behavior

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LONGISSIMUS LUMBORUM

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Lesson title: The Snail

By: Stanley L Weinberg*Iowa Committee of Correspon-dence, 156 E. Alta Vista, Ottumwa,Iowa 52501; (525) 682-7321

This is a straightforward exercise based on observationof a living animal, and it is unfailingly interesting to stu-dents. It is excellent for beginning the year's work, as itprovides a lively introduction to laboratory work. While itis simple enough for even the slowest student, many of thequestions are stimulating enough for bright youngsters.

Preparation The white, edible Burgundy snail, Helix pomatia, workswell in this exercise. Another edible snail, (Yak lactea, orPetit gris, is less dive and, therefore, less useful. Theseimported snails are sometimes available in fish markets inmajor cities. The common garden pest, Helixaspersa, is quiteactive; it can be collected at night or on rainy days. Theseand other snails areavailable from biological supply houses.

Other gastropods may be substituted for Helix, includ-ing local land and pond snails, aquarium snails, slugs andmarine forms such as periwinkles or whelks. These areavailable in pet stores. You should obtain enough snails sothat each student will have at least one to observe (studentscan also work in pairs). Snails can be used over again fromone class to the next. Dispose of any dead snails quickly asthey soon become odorous.

Snails purchased from supply houses will arrive dry,with the aperture of each shell closed by a mucous mem-brane. Distribute the snails in several covered Mason jarsthat havea little water and a few lettuce leaves in the bottomof each. Within half an hour many of the snails will emergefrom their shells and crawl up the glass. Pick them upgently, one at a time, and place each on a glass plate. If asnail withdraws into its shell, have a student return it to thejar and take another. Temporarily inactive snails often canbe reactivated by rinsing them in running water.

You can learn much about snails from carefulobservation. Remember: the snail is a living creature andcan be hurt. Handle it gently. These directions are preparedfor use with land snails. They can be modified slightly ifonly water snails are available.

*Stanley L. Weinberg, a retired teacher, received NABT's I "onoraryMember award in 1985. "The Snail" and "The Frog" are from Biology Labo-ratory Manual authored by Weinberg and published by Allyn and Bacon.

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Grade level Grade 7 life science; grade 10 biology.

Objectives 1. To become familiar with the anatomy and physiologyof a common mollusk.

2. To determine how the structure of a snail kielps itsurvive.

3. To learn proper techniques of animal observation.4. To engage in humane animal experimentafion.

Materials snail glass plate, 6" squarelettuce sandpaper, 6" squarehand lens compasswatch ruler

Instructional procedure 1. Have each student (or pair of students) put a snail ona glass plate and watch it for a few minutes. How doesit move? lf the snail does not emerge from its shell andbecome active within three minutes, have studentsreturn it to thejar and take another which has emerged.

2. Tell students to time the rate of movement. A sheet ofpaper placed under the glass plate and marked withconcentric circles equal distances apart will be helpful.Have students take the average of several trials; ex-plain why several are needed. Tell them to give the re-sults in table form.

3. Next have students place their snail on iandpaper andtime its motion. Compare this with the results fromStep 2.

4. Have students put their snail on the glass plate andturn the plate on edge. Have them observe what thesnail does and try to explain its acfion.

5. Explain that the part of the body on which the snailmoves is called the foot. Have students pick the plateup and look through the glass at the underside of thefoot. What do they see happening that explains themethod of movement?

6. Have students put a small piece of lettuce directly infront of their snail and notice how it eats. Tell them touse a hand lens to help them see what is happening,

7. Explain that at the front of the foot are four tentacles.Have students explain what they do. What do they dowl..en students touch them gently with a pencil, one ata time?

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8. Have students devise a means of blocking the snailfrom the light. Ask them to explain the function of thetentacles and use the lens to tly to find eyes.

9. Tell students to look at their snail's shell and at someof the other shells. Do they all curl the same way or indifferent ways? Have them explain their observations.

10. Have students poke the foot gently witha pencil untilthe snail draws into its shell. How does it do this? Howis it now protected? (Explain that the structure theyhave just seen is called the operculum.)

11. Have students wait very quietly for three or fourminutes to see if the snail emerges from its shell. Askthem to explain how it does this.

12. Tell students to examine the jar in which the snailsarekept. See if they can explain how the jar is arranged tokeep the animals alive and active. After the exercise,keep the snails in a pond aquarium in the classroom orrelease them in a field or garden. Formore informationabout snail care, see Animal Care from Protozoa to SmallMammals (Orlans 1977).

Results Students should give their numerical results from steps 2and 3 in table form. Briefly record other results and ex-planations.

Analysis/discussion 1. What activities and traits did students see in their snailthat are characteristic of living things in gereral?

2. What characteristics of living things did they not see?3. Have them explain how the snail is markedly different

from other animals with which they are familiar.

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Lesson title: The FrogBy: Stanley L. WeinbergIowa Committee of Correspon-dence, 156 E. Alta Vista, Ottumwa,Iowa 52501; (525) 682-7321

Grade level

Objectives

Materials

Teaching tips

Dissection and experimentation are not the only waysof studying animals. Intelligent observation of the livinganimal can tell you a great deal. In observing the frog'sstructure and behavior, look for characteristics that fuqc-tien in helping the animal survive. Teach students thatthrough this exercise they can learn some things of value tothem personally that an animal such as a frog can behandled safely and easily and that small living animals areneither frightening nor disgusting. Your class probablywill not be able to do all parts of this exercise, but have themwork in groups and do as many as they can.

Grade 10 biology.

1. To become familiar with the external structure of thefrog.

2. To determine how the adaptations of a frog help it tosurvive.

3. To compare some of the frog's functions with those ofa human.

4. To learn proper techniques of animal observation.

For each group:Leopard, green or pickerel frog in covered Mason jirmealworms

?5 net

For entirc class:large dry, covered aquarium

;5 water-filled aquariumdry leavescolored glass jars

If you get your frogs from a biological supply house, rinsethem in cold running water when they first arrive.Always have students wash their hands both beforeand after touching frogs.

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Procedure 1. Have students wet their hands, then catch a frog byputting their hand over its head from the back andgetting a firm grip on its body. Straighten out the hindlegs with one hand and wrap this hand firmly aroundthe body just behind the forelegs. Have students prac-tice catching the frog. Make sure they notice how thefrog swells as they hold it. Have them try to figuic outhow it does this. Ask them the value of this adaptation.

2. Have students rub the skin on the ventral surfacebetween the forelegs and notice the clasping reflex.Can they see any value in this response?

3. Ask them how the skin feels. The frog does somebreathing through its skin. Have students comparethe frog's temperature with theirs.

4. Point out the nostrils, eardrums, eyes and eyelids.Explain that each eye has three eyelidsthe third is thenictitating membrane attached to the lower lid. Havestudents hold their finger close to the frog's eye andobserve the effect on the eye. On the third eyelid?

5. Ask students to compare and describe the color of theskin on the frog's back and belly. Have them placetheir frog on a pile of leaves in a Mason jar. Whathappens to its color after a few minutes? Pair upgroups and have them put one of their frogs in acolored jar for five minutes, then describe the color.Ask what they've learned about the value of skincoloration to a frog.

6. Next, have students place their frog back in the Masonjar. Instruct them to slowly rotate the jar, then tilt it;combine both motions. The frog's responses are calledcompensatory movements. Ask students why theyarenecessary.

7. Students should put their frog in the dry aquarium,replace the cover and watch the frog jump. Tell themto catch it and examine its legs and feet. Explain howthey are built to help it jump. Instruct students to lookfor hardened places at the joi nts of the toes and explainhow they help. Can the students find suction cupsanywhere on the feet?

8. Have students put their frog in the water and explainhow it rests there. Have them tap the aquarium tomake the frog dive. See if they can explain how it divesand swims. Students should repeat this last step sev-eral times to make sure they see everything that hap-pens.

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9. Next, have students catch the frog with a net andreexamine its legs and touch its nostrils. Ask whatadaptations they have seen for life in the water.

10. Students should return their frog to the )ar and put inmealworms one at a time to Iva tch the frog feed. Pointout that they will have to be very quiet to see thisresponse. Ask how the frog eats. Swallows?

11. Have students gently spray the frog with water fromthe faucet or gently stroke its sides or back to make itcroak. Ask them how the frog croaks and explain thatthey have just seen the sound sacs functioning.

12. Have students watch their frog breathe, Urn ask themto describe its rather complicated breathing move-ments.

13. Tell students to place their frog on its back and "hypno-tize" it by stroking its belly. Rolling it over will makeit recover.

14. Make sure students wash their hands thoroughly at theend of the experiment.

Analysis/discussion 1. Have students compare the frog's methods of breath-ing and swallowing with theirs.

2. Tell them to summarize the adaptations they haveseenthat seem to be useful for a frog's survival.

Additional activities After the exercise, keep the frogs in a pond aquarium in theclassroom or release them to a nearby pond. For moreinformation about frog care, see Animal Care fromProtozoa t9 Small Mammals (Orlans 1977).

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Chaptera. IEthical Considerations

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The preceding chapter focused on ways that teacherscould incorporate the principles of reduction, replacementand refinement in their existing procedures involving ani-mals. The objective was to help eliminate waste of animalsand time by suggesting ways that animals could be usedmore effectively. The sample lessons in Chapter 2 aredesigned to teach students more about organisms whilefostering in them an appreciation and respect for life thatthey may not have developed with traditional teachingmethods. Chapter 3 goes one step further to address theethics of animal use by providing teachers with a guide tothe clirrent controversy and some sample lessons thatillustrate how the issue can be brought into the classroom.

Becausebiology is the study of life, many of the subjectsthat arouse emotions ontside of school also appear inbiology class. Traditionally, the topics of sex education andevolution have been sensitive areas for biology teachers,but the ethics of animal use increasingly has emerged as anew source of controversy between students, teachersandadministrators. Most people point to the 1987case of JeniferGraham (who went to courtover her objection to dissectionon moral grounds) as the beginning of a national debateabout the ethics of dissection and animal experimentationin schools. Since then, California has adopted legislationmdking animal dissection optional for students, and sev-eral national organizations, includingNABT, have adop tedpolicy statements on the use of animals in education.

Val ues clearly ha ve cha nged since teachers first broughtanimals into the classroom. It is no longer written in text-books that man is superior to all species and thereforesho-uld control all aspects of the natural world. Ecology isnow taught as a set of principles that govern all livingthings, including humans, and humans are seen by mostscientists as developing directly from other animals. Theenvironmental movement has made students, teachers andthe public more aware of what humans have done to wildanimals and their habitats. Today there is global concernabout changes in climate, dwindling resources and loss ofspecies. This awareness of the connection between humusand other organisms has made people more open to theconcept of animal rights. There is a growing realization that

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"we are living phenomena and we depend on our naturalenvironment" (Kelly 1980, P. 56).

Animal rights issues are covered frequently by themedia and opinions on both sides-rame of them quiteextreme-are voiced regularly. As with all complex ques-tions facing society, it is important that citizens be wellinformed. Dr. Michael W. Fox of the Humane Society of theUnited States has said, "Education, in its fullest sense,entails the development of the whole person and humannature, involving ethics and sentiments as well as intellect"(Pringle 1989, p. 52). Teachers need not-indeed, shouldnot-decide how they feel and then impose that opinion ontheir students. Instead, students should be given the oppor-tunity to explore the issue themselves and come to theirown conclusions. Class discussions of such controversialtopics are often good strategies for teaching content as wellas changing attitudes. Facts about vertebrate biology andevolution can be an important part of any debate or projectconcerning anima/ rights. Making studentsaware of differ-ing viewpoints will encourage them to see science as acomplex and sometimes emotional subject pursued byhumans with feelings IT ther than as a refuge for cold,unfeeling intellectuals.

A Guide to the Lessons in this Chapter

The Dissection Dilemma: A Method for an Ethical Decision 95Ethical Considerations of Dissection 102

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A Field Guide to the Animal Rights Controversy

There are many books and pamphlets available thatcan help a teacher or student becomebetter informed aboutthe ethics issues surrounding the use of animals (see Re-sources and References). Below is a brief description of themajor organizations and philosophies that make up theanimal welfare movement. This guide is based on previ-ously published statements and is intended only as a toolfor fu, ther rese;,..,ch, not as an exhausEve analysis of com-plex positions.

Organizations (listed alphabetically)

The American Society for thePrevention of Cruelty to Ani-mals (ASPCA)

Animal Welfare Institute(AWI)

Focus on Animals

Foundation for BiomedicalResearch (FliR)

The Humane Society of theUnited States (HSUS)

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"Hands-on" experience is not necessary; in fact, early exposure toanimal experimentation and dissection may have a negative effectboth on those who dislike acience and those who plan to pursue itas a career.

Dedicated to providing the public with information about thetreatment of animals in laboratories, commercial trade, factory(arms and traplines. Extensive publications and materials avail-able to teachers.

A clearinghouse for audiovisual resources about human interre-lationships with animals. Produces a newsletter as a link foreat, ..ators who wish to share their ideas on curriculum improve-ment involving animals.

Established to serve as a resource for information on the use ofanimals in biomedical research. Educational materials developedby FBR address how animals are used in research, the regulationsgoverning animal research and the importance of humane andresponsible animal research for advances in human and animalhealth.

Believes that the evaluation of proposed plans for research andtesting should carefully address the following questions: Can theproposed use of animals be replaced by nonanimal methods thatwould yield comparable or superior results? If not, can the pro-posed number of animals be reduced to a minimum withoutcom-promising the revlts? Can the proposed procedure be refined r.othat any pain, suffering, or deprivation experienced by the ani-mals be minimized without compromising the results?

Also believes that safeguards should prevent certain experi-ments from being conducted on animals, resardless of the state ofalternatives. These include experiments that are unnecessarilyduplVative of other studies; scientifically or medically trivial,

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National Anti-VivisectionSociety (NAVS)

National Association furHumane and EnvironmentalEducation (NAHEE)

People for the Ethical Treat-ment of Animals (PETA)

Physicians Committee forResponsible Medicine(PCRM)

Scientists Center for AnimalWelfare

Student Action Corps forAnimals

dubious, or otherwise unnecessary; extremely painful or stressful;or otherwise fail ta balance scientific aims and the public's concernfor animals. (Policy statement 1989).

Supports the abolition of all animal ocperimentation. Publishes acompendium of alternatives (Diner 1986).

A division of HSUS. Biology programs have a responsibility tohelp students develop an appreciation for the uniqueness of eachorganism, the connection between living things and the relation-ship of each individual to its environment. Dissection and animalexperimentation do little to achieve this objective and thereforehave no place in the classroom. Living animals should be usedonly for naturalistic observation and strict guidelines as to theircare should be followed (Guidelines 1984).

"When it comes to having a central nervous system and the abilityto experience pain, hunger and thirst, a rat is a pig isa dog is a boy."Humans have no right to eat, wear, experiment on any animal.Works toward the abolition of ali exploitation of animals byhumans.

Working toward increased consideration of ethics, alternativesand clinical upplicability in research funding, increased aware-ness among medical students and doctors of the ethical founda-tion of medicine: "First, do no harm." Since most medical schoolsno longer require participation in animal labs, then such labscertainly have no place in a high school education.

Holds that experiments on animals are justified and seeks to helpinstitutions maintain high standards of animal welfare. Dedicatedto thebelief that high standards of animal welfare complement thequality of scientific results.

Runs a "Say No to Dissection" campaign that provides studentswho object to dissection with guidance and alternatives that theymay suggest to their teachers. Opposed to any labs that rely on thedeaths of animals, including films of dissection or dissection usinganimals or animal by-products from the supermarket.

1 I )

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People (listed alphabetically)

Michael W. Fox

Tom Regan

Peter Singer

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Veterinarian; author ofReturning to Eden: Animal Rights and HumanResponsib ility

Humans need to adopt a "new natural philosophy ofeco-ethics inwhich we adopt an ecologically-based moral framework thatwould allow for a better world for both humans and animals. Tobe truly civilized is to minimize suffering by any living beingwhenever possible" (Pringle 1989).

Author of The Case for Animal Rights"The ultimate objective of the rights view is the total dissolutionof the animal industry as we know it. . . We don't want largercages, we want empty cages."Slaughtering animals humanely orkilling an experimental animal painlessly while it is still uncon-scious is as immoral as euthanizing a healthy human (Pringle1989).

Author of Animal Liberation and In Defense of Animals"Animals have the right to equal consideration and animals'interests ought to be given equal consideration with the likeinterests of humans. Pain and suffering are bad and should beminimized, irrespectiveof the race, sex or species of the bei ng thatsuffers" (Pringle 1989).

The areas in which animals are used are food, research,clothing, entertainment and education. In each of theseareas the question boils down to whether animal useshould Iv abolished altogether, made more humane orleft as is. Students can attempt to answer this questionwith research reports, oral presentations, role playing orclassroom debates. The teacher can serve the class best byproviding resources, guiding research and asking ques-tions that stimulate discussion. Several of the resourceslisted in Chapter 4 may be consulted. Also review theAppendix.

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Lessons that Explore Ethics

Lesson title: The Dissection Dilemma:A Method for an Ethical Decision

By: Peter F. De DeckerHastings High School, 520 SouthStreet, Hastings, MI 49058; (616)948-4409

Grade level

Objectives

Materials

Instructional procedure

Scientific objectivity rarely provides a consensus insubjective matters. To provide a method for consideringsuch questions, I have devised a short lesson plan to be usedeither by the teacher(s) (such as a curriculum review com-mittee) or with students (De Decker 1987).

Grade 10 biology.

1. Sensitize students to the issue of animal welfare.2. Help students identify personal values related to liv-

ing things.3. Introduce a procedure for decision making.4. Help students develop a way to justify a decision.

questionnaire on dissection"Continuum""Decision Making Model""Decision Making Model" Worksheet

Day 1:1. The day before you plan to discuss the issue, give stu-

dents a written questionnaire consisting of the follow-ing:

a. Would you benefit from the dissection of an or-ganism? Why or why not?b. Would you have trouble learning about the anat-omy of an organism without dissection? Explain.c. Can you think of some alternatives to dissectionthat wou'.1 help you learn about the anatomy of anorganism? Describe.

2. Collect the surveys and study them before the r.cxtclass. Summarize (ne results to students and initiate aclass discussion on the role that animals play in educa..tion and whether it is justified. How do the studentsfeel about animals in cosmetic research? Biomedicalresearch? Factory farming? Zoos and Rodeos? At-tempt to clarify the pros and cons for each question.

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3. Conduct the "Hammer Exercise" (described below).(This is optional. You may want to try it on a fewstudents first. If not appropriate for your class, con-sider the alternative Decision Making Exercise onpage 103.) Set out a row of small paper bags, eachlabeled with the name of an organism written largeenough for students to see. There should be a bag foreach of the following "pretend" organisms from thefive Kingdoms:

Bacteria, amoeba, bread mold, moss, grass, earthworm,mosquito, spider, frog, snake, sparrow, bat, rabbit, pig, cow,dog, human zygote, human fetta and post-natal human.

4. Hold up each "organism" and instruct students towrite its name on their paper. Hit the bag ("organism")with a hammer and "kill" it. Students then write"OK"or "not OK" next to the organism's name to reflecttheir personal feelings about "hammering" each or-ganism. Afterward, ask for the class's responses asyou read through the list of organisms. Poird out tostudents that value systems differ as shown by thevariety of responses.

5. Repeat the exercise, but ask students to pretend thereis a non-living object that they may itave without cost(a stereo system, a car, etc.) in another bag. Give thema choice between hammering the organism and ham-mering the non-living object. They again should note"OK" or "not OK" ina second column next to the nameof each organism. Comparing the two responses usu-ally reflects a person's underlying values. At varyingpoints students will begin to recogrize that their re-spect for life supersedes material desires.

6. Break the class into groups of three to five students todiscuss their individual choices and see whether aconsensus opinion can be reached. Students shouldnot be forced or even encouraged to compromise theirvalues. Each student should record the group re-sponses and comments on their paper and keep it forfuture reference.

7. Pass out the "Continuum" for students to complete.Ask them to compare their results with their answersto the initial questions. Have they changed theirminds in the course of discussion?

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Day_21

1. Present the "Decision-Making Model" and providestudents with the worksheet, which you may wish toassign as homework.

2. In this step-by-step process, teachers (and/or stu-dents) begin by defining the dilemma or position andlisting at least five different courses of action that maybe followed. The pros and cons of each are listed anda preference ranking assigned to it. Evaluate the top-ranking action by correlating previously identifiedpersonal values with that action. If the supportingvalues outweigh the conflicting values this would bethe decision of choice. If not, the procedure is repeatedfor the second-ranked course of action. After choosinga course of action, a confidence ranking is producedalong with a list of anticipated long-term consequencesof the decision.

3. Conduct a class discussion using the Bioethical Deci-sion-Making Model. Students have used their val-ues to justify a decision. You will more clearly recog-nize their attitudes toward dissection.

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The Continuum Agree 1 2 3 4 5 Disagree

Dissection:

teaches the scientific technique of observation

deals with reality, which is important

is more real than pictures

is fun

allows me to take things apart to see how they work

provides real experie lce of texture/feel.

is important to teach unity yet diversity

is important to show variation among organisms

is wrong, but necessary

helps to conquer fears/inadequacies of new experiences

makes "good" use of animals killed in shelters

is an educational focal point of anatomy studies

researches valuable information

is cheaper than expensive models/alternatives

can be learned from computer simulations

is unnecessary-most scientific work has shifted from liveanimal work to in vitro tissue cultures

just cuts up things and is not educational

is OK if research using that one life saves several others

cheapens student perception of the value of life

offends me-I am against killing for study

is cruel

is smelly and unpleasant

is the only way to experience the texture of organs

is not necessary/important for elementary students

is not necessary/important for middle school students

is not necessary/important for high school students

is not necessary/important for college students

should only be done as a demonstration

is the focal point of zoology

is wrong, because animals are just as valuable az; humans198

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Decision Making Model

Ethical Dilemma

rList 5 Courses of Action(Solutions to the Dilemma)

4,Rank Each Course of Action

Course of ActionRanked Number 1

Values that Agreewith this Action

Values that Don't Agreewith this Action

Compa Impor tance ofEach List of Values

Values that AgreeMore Important

Consequences(family, friends,

etc.)

ConfidenceRank on

Continuum1 9

Values that Don't AgreeMore Important

Choose AnotherCourse of Action

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Bioethical Decision-Making ModelWorksheet

A) Ethical Dilemma (What should I do?)Write a short paragraph explaining the nature of your dilemma.

B) List 5 possible courses of action. Then, list reasons both for and against each.

1. Course of Action:

For

2. Course of Action:

For

3. Course of Action:

For

4. Course of Action:

For

5. Course of Action:

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Against Rank

Against Rank

Against Rank

Against Rank

For Against Rank

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C) Next, rank each action from 1 to 5 as to which you feel is best (I) and which you feel isworst (5).

D) List and explain those values that are in accordance with the course of action (decision)that you ranked number I.

E) List and explain those values that are not in accordance with the decision that you rankednumber I.

F) Are you comfortable with this decision? Why or why not?

G) How much confidence do you have in this decision? Rank your confidence by markinga number on the continuum below:

Confident I. .. 2. . . 3. . . 4. . . 5. . . 6. . . 7. . . 8. . . 9 Not Confident

H) List the long-term consequences of your decision. If applicable, explain how yourdecision will affect family and friends. What would happen if everyone made the samedecision?

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Lesson title: Ethical Considerations of Dissection

By: David GilmoreRocky 1 liii I hgh School, RockyI lill, Connecticut 06067; (203)529-2583

Grade level Grade 7 life science; grade 10 biology.

Objectives Students will:1. Be aware of the pros, cons and implications of dissec-

tion.2. Identify their personal motivation regarding dissec-

tion.3. Allow the expression of differing opinions from class-

mates, free from judgmental consideration.4. Express in writing the ways in which their value

systems affect their attitudes toward all organisms.

Instructional procedure 1. The teacher should lead students in a discussion iden-tifying differing opinions within the class concerningdissection.

2. Instruct students to put into writing their position ondissection. Assure them that all opinionsare valid andthat their positions will remain confidential. Collectthe papers and share three samples with the class,maintaining the anonymity of the writers.

3. Discuss the concepts of value systems and ideology.Invite students to saare examples of their own ideolo-gies.

4. Conduct the Hammer Exercise (see pp. 96) using thefollowing organisms:

Bacteria, amoeba, mold, moss,grass , spider, mosquito, frog,snake, sparrow, bat, rabbit, pig, cow, dog, zygote, fetus,human.

You may wish to try the Hammer Exercise on a fewstudents before deciding whether to use it. If it seemsinappropriate for your class, consider using the alter-native Decision Making Exercise (p. 103).

5. Discuss the results of the exercise with respect to theposition of animals in people's value systems.

6. Briefly discuss the implications of our treatment ofanimals in food production, clothing, biomedical re-search, education, sports, entertainment andcompan-

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ionship. Try to enlist the support of guest speakers.7. Present the students with alternatives to dissection.8. Provide students with the opportunity to revise their

written position on dissection. Encourage students tomake their decisions consistent with how they treatanimals outside the classroom.

9. Provide specimens, instruction and time for thosewho still choose to dissect. Provide equally challeng-ing activities for those who decide not to dissect.

10. Solicit from the students an evaluation of the mannerin which this issue was handled.

Decision Making Exercise

1. Write the following list on the board:Bacteria, amoeba , mold , moss, grass, spider, mosquito, frog,snake, sparrow, bat, rabbit, pig, cow, dog, zygote, fetus,human.

2. Group students into teams of at least two and assigneach team an organism from the list.

3. Have each team think of two reasons why the organ-ism should not be used by humans and two reasonswhy it is necessary for humans to use this organism.

4. %Allen all the teams are ready, ask each to present theirpros and cons to the class.

5. After each team finishes, ask the class to vote whetherto use the animal or not, based on the presentation ofthe team. Keep a running tally of the voting results onthe board.

6. When all the voting is complete, ask the students towrite a brief summary of the day's conclusions aboutthe use of animals.

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Chapter 4. OResources

Printed materials

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A. Teaching Materials

This chapter on resources lists selected instructional materi-als in various forms: printed materials (books, magazines), kits,models, films, videotape, computer software and videodiscs.Complete addresses and phone numbers can be found in thePublishers/Vendors listing following this section.

Alternatives in Biology Education (1990). The Biology MethodsReview Project. The guidebook contains listings of kits, com-puter programs, books, 35mm slides, videotapes, filmstrips,models, transparencies and charts. Each item listed is accom-panied by a brief annotation and the name and address of thesupplier, cost and recommended grade level for the material.The intention of the guidebook is to inform students andeducators about these products and to serve as a reference forthose who are assessing educational materials. The guidebookmay be ordered from The Biology Methods Review Project orPhysicians Committee for Responsible Medicine.

Alternatives to Animal Experiments (1985). Fund for the Re-placement of Animals in Medical Experiments (FRAME).Seven main types of alternatives are discussed in two pages:(1) Mathematical Modeling of the StructureActivity Rela-tionships and Computer Graphics, (2) MatEmatical Model-ing of Biochemical and Physiological Processes, (3) HumanStudies, (4) The Use of Lower Organisms, (5) In-vitro Tech-niques, (6) Improved Storage, Exchange and Use of Informa-tion and (7) Improved Design of Experiments. The beginningparagraph defin,s alternatives in light of reduction, refine-ment and replacement alternatives. The last section deals withrecommendations on how a combination of alternatives maybe used.

Alternatives to Animal Use in Research,Testing and Edu, Mien(1986). Office of Technology Assessment. A thick documentpacked with information. Includeschapters on ethical consid-erations and animal use . a the classroom. Extensive descrip-tion of alternatives and resources.

Alternatives to Dissection (1990). National Association forHumane and Environmental Education. A methodical listingof traditional objectives of dissectionand of animal study. Thelist of objectives is followed by ideas for alternative biologyprojects, all designed to meet at least one of the listed objec-tives. Several of the alternative project ideas have been ex-

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panded into student activity sheets, writttm for studentscomplete with step-by-step instructions for completing theactivity. A list of resources is also provided.

The Anatomy Coloring Book, by Wynn Kapit and Laurence M.Elson (1977). Barnes and Noble. This book contains detailedplates that encourage active learning about human systemsand anatomy. Appropriate for high school and undergraduateclasses.

Animal Care from Protozoa to Small Mammals, by F. BarbaraOrlans (1977). Addison-Wesley Publishing Co. A detailedbook describing humane care and maintenance of classroomanimals. Each chapter focuses on a differe A group of organ-isms. Includes two chapters on humane experiments thatstudents can do in school. Lists many references.

Animal Fi!ms for Humant Education, by Dallas Pratt (1986).Argus Archives. A book useful as a reference. It has descrip-tions and reviews, of the 139 best films, videotapes and film-strips for humane education. The book also includes: (1)reactions of audiences and selected groups of children to thefilms, (2) discussion guide for each film, and (3) an index.

The Animal Rights Controversy, by Laurence Pringle (1989).Harcourt Brace Jovanovich Publishers. A brief, readable treat-ment of the arguments and philosophies behind the animalrights movement. A short section deals with animal rights inclassrooms. Alternatives are described in a general way.

Animal Rites: A Research Perspective, 1-; Jeff Diner (1986). TheNational Anti-Vivise-tion Society. A pamphlet briefly review-ing research from 1 ).30-1984 that represents the most severemistreatment of animals. Very graphic and disturbing de-scriptions. Does not describe alternatives.

Animals and Their Legal Rights: A Survey of American Lawsfrom 1641-1978, by Emily Stewart Leavitt (1978). The AnimalWelfare Institute. A detailed book made up of chapters writtenbydifferent authors. Each chapter examines the la ws concern-ing a particular species or situation (such as factory farms).Includes a chapter on humane education in public schools.Does not describe alternatives.

Animals in Ed4cation: The Use of A nimals in High SchoolBiology Classes and ScienceFa in, edited by Heather McGiffinand Nancie Brownley (1980). Published by the Institute for theStudy of Animal Problems. A compilation of sessions from theconference "The Use of Animals in High School BiologyClasses and Science Fairs." The conference took place in 1979

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and was sponsored by the Institute for the Study of AnimalProblems (ISAP) and the Myrin Institute for Adult Education.Each session is presented as an article with an abstract andreferences. Numerous alternatives to dissection and inhu-mane use of animals in experiments are included, along withcurrent regulations on the humane use of animals.

Classroom Creature Culture, by Carolyn Hampton, et al. (1986).National Science Teachers Association. A collection of articlesfrom the journal Science and Children. Each articie addresses aspecific organism. The book focuses on insects, amphibiansand reptiles. Presents many hum ane activit ies that can be dorwith living animals as an alternative to dissection.

A Compendium of Alternatives to the Use of Live Animals inResearch and Testing, by Jeff Diner (1983). The National Anti-Vivisection Society. Booklet describes current animal testingprocedures, their history, their flaws and the available alterna-tives. Extensive bibliography.

Dissection: You Can Study Life Without Killing Animals, Phy-sicians Committee for Responsible Medicine (1987). Publica-tion appropriatc. for grade school and junior high schoolstudents. Available free from PCRM.

Does the Idea of Dissection or Experimenting on Animals inBiology Class Disturb You? National Association for Hu-mane and Environmental Education. Brochure for high schoolstudents.

The Endangered '..:pecies Handbook, by Greta Nilsson (1986),Animal Welfare Institute. A readable book that provides ex-tensive information on which species are endangered andwhy. Includes projects for the classroom as well as guidelinesfor science fairs. Describes alternatives and lists many re-sources.

First Aid and Care of Small Animals, by Ernest P. Walker (1955).National Zoological Park, Smithsonian Institution and Ani-mal Welfare Institute. A thoughtful and well written descrip-tion of how to care for small wild animals in the home orclassroom. The author emphasizes that when students knowhow to care for animals a knowledge of physiology as well asa respect for life wql follow. He discusses proper housing,feeding, medical care and retraining for release into the wild.Includes mammals, reptiles, amphibians, fish and inverte-brates.

How to Dissect: Exploring with Probe and Scalpel, by WilliamBerman (1986). Prentice Hall Press. A detailed manual that

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describes the basic equipment and techniques of dissection.Includes a chapter-by-chapter exploration of commonly dis-sected organisms. Describes one alternative to dissection ofthe earthworm: a noninvasive method for observing the heart.

The Living Science: A Humane Approach to the Study of Ani-mals in Elementary and Secondary School Biology. NationalAssociation for Humane and Environmental Education. Thisfolded brochure for teachers focuses on the "Guidelines for theStudy of Animals in Elementary and Secondary School Biol-ogy" formulated by NAHEE. The brochure opens to a posterwith information on (1) prerequisites to the use of animals inthe classroom, (2) appropriate and inappropriate animals andsources, (3) breeding and disposition of animals after use, (4)care and handling, (5) experimental procedures, (6) independ-ent study and science fair projects, and (7) non-educational useof animals. One side of the poster defines then 'e of biology ineducation, what young people really learn in animal experi-mentation and dissection, ethics of the classroom laboratory,the human cost and what teachers can do to promote respon-sible use of animals in the classroom. A short list of resourcesfor alternate lessons and teaching materials is included.

Kind News, National Association for Humane and Environ-mental Education. A newspaper forelementary-level childrenpublished nine times each year. Contains lessons, activities,worksheets, puzzles and games focusing on respect for ani-mals.

Nature With Children of All Ages, by Edith Sisson (1990). Pub-lished by Prentice Hall Press. This book contains dozens ofactivities for studying animals and plants in their naturalsettings. The purpose of the book is to show howeasy sharingcan be and help readers feel confident about teaching out-doors.

Objecting to Dissection: A Student Handbook. Published by theAnimal Legal Defense Fund. A small booklet explaining stu-dents' legal rights when choosing to refrain from dissection.Provides a ten-step guide for students who decide to refuse todissect and lists the Dissection Hotline: (800) 922-3764. In-chides a list of alternatives.

People & Animals: A Humane Education Curriculum Guide.Published by the National Association for Humane and Envi-ronmental Education. Four books containing more than 400activities designed to interpret and explore relationships be-tween humans and other living creatures. Activities are di-vided into subjects; a curriculum index is included.

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2roceedings of the First International Foundation for EthicalResearch Workshop: Alternatives to Live Animals in V eteri-nary Medical Education. (1989). International Foundation forEthical Research. Small collection of presentations describingthe philosophical difficulties of using live animals in veteri-nary science classrooms. Describes some alternatives.

Proceedings on the Educational Use of Animals. (1980). Pub-lished by the Institute for the Study of Animal Problems,Proceedings Number 36. Available from the Myrin Institutefor Adult Education. Essays by animal rights experts on theneed to balance the teaching of animal structure and functionwith moral education about the rights and intrinsic value ofanimals. Discusses some alternatives.

Reverence for Life: An Ethic for High School Biology Curricula,by George K. Rvf,aell.Published by the National Anti-Vivisec-tion Society. This pamphlet contains the text of a 1979 speechto the Conference on the Use of Animals in High SchoolBiology Classes and Science Fairs. Ethical and pedogogicalar-guments against the use of animals in high schools are out-lined. Provides a description of alternatives and a list ofreferences.

Reviews of Software for Teaching Anatomy, Physiology andGeneral Biology (1988). Physicians Committee for Respon-sible Medicine. A listing of computer software for teachinganatomy and physiology. The brief annotations include adescription of the program-i.e., if it is a tutorial, program orsimulation. The ,-mputer hardware and the name and ad-dress of the supplier also are indicated.

Selected Software Related to Dissection, Anatomy and Physiol-ogy compiled by Randall Lockwood (1989). The HumaneSociety of the United States. A typewritten list of computersoftware to teach about dissection. A short descriptionalongwith information on hardware, and name and address ofsupplier are included.

Models/Kits Plastic models and kits are available from:

Armstrong Medical Industry

NASCO

Carolina Biological Supply Company

Connecticut Valley Biological Supply Co. Inc.

Fisher Scientifk-Education Materials Division

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16mm sound films

National Teaching Aids

Nystrom Division of Herff Jones, Inc.

Phipps and Bird, Inc. (The BIO-MONITOR)

Sargent-% elch Scientific Co.

SCIDEAS (Ribbit, a fabric frog model)

Science Kit and Boreal Laboratories

Ward's Natural Science Establishment

Adaptations Of Insects (1982, 2nd ed.)14 min. Color. Using new cinephotomacrography techniques,explores six ways insects are adapted to the environment. De-velops broader concepts of adaptations in other life forms.Stanton Films

Adventures of Bunny Rabbits (1984, 2nd ed.)11 min. Color. Rabbits are shown in their natural environ-ment; habits and characteristics are pictured. Rep!aces filmproduced in 1937.Encyclopedia Britannica Films.

Bacteria (1985)

23 min. Color.This film examines the principal forms in whichbacteria occur, explores the structure of a typical bacteria cell,and explains the cell's reproductive processes. Students learnthat bacteria can kill us, and that we can kill them. The film alsoshows how bacteria can cause food to spoil, make nitrogen inthe air available to plants and cause spoiled or dead organicmatter to decompose, as well as how bacteria can aid in otherprocesses (also available on videocassette).National Geographic Society

Kakapo: The Night Parrot (1984)30 min. Color. A true-life nature story about a nearly extinctparrot family living in the rain forests of New Zealand. It wonthe Best Film in Festival Award at the 1984 InternationalWildlife Film Festival.New Dimension Films

Meet The Grebes (1987)20 min. Color. Some of nature's most spectacular secrets arerevealed in this film about grebes. Through vivid color pho-tography, shows the world of the grebe, including egg incuba-tion, hatching and mating rituals.l3erlet Films

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Videocassettes

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Pandas (1983)27, min. Color. Shows American and Chinese researchers asthey work together to save one of the world's most engagingand elusive animals. Students will learn how research scien-tists work in the field to collect and analyze data in the processof investigating a problem.National Geographic Society

Snakes, Scorpions, and Spiders (1981)15 min. Color. This film reinforces theconcept of predatorprey

relationships that are studied in a seventh grade environ-mental life science and biology program. Shows the habitats,movement and reproduction of snakes, scorpions and spiders.The photography is excellent.Learning Corporation of America

Adapting To Changes In Nature (1985, revised)12 min. Color. Vivid photography and appropriate textdemonstrate how plants and animals adapt to changes inorder to survive and flourish.Journr] Films, inc.

Beaver (1985)25 min. Color. Excellent photography taken over a seven-yearperiod provides fascinating views of beaver life inside andoutside the beaver lodge.PhoenixIBFA Films and Video, Inc.

BSCS Classic Inquiries Series: The Kidney And Homeostasis12 min. Color. What are the functions of the kidney? Based onthe data presented, describes the kidney as a homeostaticorgan.Media Design

BSCS Classic Inquiries Series: Mating Behavior In The co*ck-roach (1986)

11 min. Color. After observing mating behavior in the tropicalco*ckroach, the student may raise questions about the stimulithat evoke mating responses.Media Design

The Crab11 min. Color. Shows a variety of crabs and how they eat andmove. Music and close-up photography make an interestingand informative video.Barr Films

Digestive System (1980, 2nd ed.)16 min. Color. A detailed analysis of the digestive system.

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Emphasizes the role of each organ in nutrient absorption.Media Design

Swallowtail Butterfly (1986)11 min. Color. Visually stunning video that follows the devel-opment of a swallowtail butterfly. From egg to adult, explainsterms caterpillar, insect, molting, chrysalis, metamorphosis,antennae and compound eyes.Barr Films

Year Of The Wildebeast (1985)30 min. Color. Depicts the 2,000-mile migration of wildebeastin Tanzania.Benchmark Films

Filmloops/Filmstrips Filmloops:Inquiry into Nerves and Heartbeat Rate [single-topic filmloopsl

BSCS

Filmstrips:Alike and Different, All Kinds of Animals, All Kinds of Plants

(K-2)

National Geographic Society

Biological DissectionContains: An Introduction to Dissect ion, The Earthworm, TheCrayfish, The Fish, The Frog Parts I & II.Discover Science Opportunities for Learning, Inc

Filmstrip Set Dissection of Fetal PigScience Kit and Boreal Laboratories

Dissection of Fetal PigPart 1. External Anatomy and Skeletal StructurePart 2. MusculaturePart 3. Digestive and Urogenital SystemsPart 4 Circulatory, Respiratory and Nervous SystemsSchoolmaster Science

Dissection of a FrogPart 1. Techniques Skin, Digestive and CirculatoryPart 2. Excretory, Respiratory, Reproductive and SkeletalSchoolmaster Science

Frog Anatomy CollectionCarolina Biological Supply Company

Human Body Systems [18 filmstrips]Discover Science Opportunities for Learning, Inc.

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Computer software

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The Life of Animals (K-4)Ways Animals Get Food; Animal Homes; Ways AnimalsMove About; Ways Animals Protect Themselves; Animalsand Their FamiliesNational Geographic Society

The Structure of Animal Series, 1987 (5-9)Part 1: Invertebrates, An Introduction to Invertebrates, Insectsand Other ArthropodsPart 11: Vertebrates, Fish, Reptiles and Amphibians, Birds,MammalsNational Geographic Society

Your Bones and Muscles (K-2)National Geographic Society

Anatomy of a FishApple 11, 48K; Level 7 and up. Presents information on theexternal, internal and skeletal structures of a bony fish.Queue

Anatomy of a SharkApple 11, 48 K; Level 7 and up. Presents information on theexternal, internal and skeletal structures of a shark.Queue

Biology Volume 1 (1986)5-inch disk; Level 7-10. Useful for Biology 1, biology labs.Reviews digestion and nutrition with good graphics. Requires64K Apple lle computer.Webster/McGraw-Hill

dbreed (1983)

-inch disk. Level 11-12. Designed for the exploration ofnetic principles using16 breeding grovps of birds of definedlenotypes. The student may accumulate up to 100 birds for

the analysis of genotypes and patterns of inheritance. Clutchsizes vary from 4 to 8 fledglings; incorporates the variationsobserved in small populations in nature. Requires 48K Applecomputer.EduTech, Inc.

Body Language: A Review of Anatomical TermsApple II, 64K

A Lomputer-based drill designed to aid students in identify-ing and naming anatomical structures. Employs two comple-mentary drill techniquesmatching and recall. Both drillsencourage students to pronounce the terms with phoneticallyspelled assistance. Each package consists of four program

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disks with backups.Body Language IThis program represents the skeletal sys-tem with more than 45 diagrams.MLU.11gliaga.This program covers the muscular andrespiratory systems. The section on the muscular systemcontains over 40 diagrams.Body Language IIIThe cardiovascular and nervous systemswith more than 45 total diagrams are presented on two disks.Body Language IVUsing more than 40 diagrams, this pro-gram presents the digestive, urinary and reproductive sys-tems.Carolina Biological Supply Company

Cardiac Muscle Mechanics by COMPressIBM PC 256K. The computer simulations and accompanyingslides In this package are designed to assist in the teaching ofheart muscle mechanics. Using high resolution graphics andcolor, the simulations show how the heart muscle behavesunder a variety of conditions. There is enough flexibility in thesimulations to allow for individuals or small groups. IBM..ersions require color graphics adapter and graphics mcnitor.Queue

Cat lab, Second Edition (1982)

Skills practice simulation; Level 9-college. Allows students tomate domestic cats selected by coat color and patterns.Theprogram then produces genetically valid litters of kittensbased on these matings. Students learn the principles behindtransmission of genes, define research problems, controlvari-ables and analyze data. Network version available.Apple Il+IIIe/Ilc/Ilgs, 48K, 5-inch disk drive, Applesoft,DOS 3.3

IBM PC/ PC-XT/PCjr, 128K, 5-inch disk drive, colorgraphicsoption, PC-DOSConduit

Cells and Tissues (1986)5-inch disk. Level 7-10. Tutorial with animated graphic pres-entation of cell organisms.and simulation of materials passingthrough thecell membrane. Included are cell theory and struc-ture, single-celled organisms, and plant and animal cells.Second tutorial has a simulation of mitosis and cell division.Sections followed by drill and practice. Requires Apple Ile.Educational Activities

The Digestion Simulator (1986)5-inch disk; Level 10. Full graphics of ingestion of food, peri-stalsis, digestion in the stomach, movement of food throughlarge an nall intestine. Requires 64K Apple II or lie.Focus M. .ia, Inc.

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Exploring Your Brain (1983)5-inch disk; Level 7-12. Focuses mainly on brain structure andneuronal communication, helps students understand thatepileptic seizure is a result of neuronal malfunction a nd teachesappropriate social response. Helps banish old myths andimprove t he social acceptance of epilepsy. Four units use colorgraphics and animation and include mastery tests. Requires48K Apple II, Ile or 11c.Epilepsy Foundation of America

Heart Abnormalities and EKG's (1985)5-inch disk; Level 10-12. Shows the relationship betweenEKG's and heart abnormalities. Two modes ofoperationDemonstration and Tutorialallows for flexible usein classroom. Abnormalities illustrated inclua coronary ar-tery disease, atrical or ventricular fibrillation, prematurebeats,brachycardia and tachycardia. Requires Apple lie.Focus Media, Inc.

Heart Lab (1981)

5-inch disk; Level 7-12. Animated graV iics produce simula-tion mode of functioning human heart. Network versionavailable. Program cannot be used as a sole source of informa-tion. Pulse simulation is worthwhile but heart diagram ispoor. Useful in biology labs. Requires 481< Apple II or Ile.Focus Media, Inc.

The Heart Simulator (1986)5-inch disk; Level 10. Allows you to demonstrate, before anentire class, a beating heart together with blood flow, a timingexercise for the heart, heart-to-lung blood flow, and parts ofthe heart. Requires 64K Apple II or Ile.Focus Media, Inc.

Human Anatomy (1983)

5-inch disk; Level 7-12. Explores the body machine, its struc-ture and functions. Clarifies the interrelationships of tissues,organs and systems. With back-up diskettes. Requires 481<Apple.Encyclopedia Britannica

Human Systems Series 1, 2, & 3 (1986)

5-inch disk; Level 9-12. Contains complete set of HumanSeries disks. Human Systems Series 1: Human Organisms,The Digestive System, Blood, The Circulatory System. Hu-man Series 2: The Muscular System, The Skeletal System, TheNervous System, The Endocrine System. Human Series 3: TheRespiratory System, The Excretory System, The ReproductiveSystem and Human Genetics. Requires Apple lle.Focus Media, Inc.

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Insect Identification (1986)5-inch disk; Level 7-12. Came with beginner and advancedlevels. More than 1,000 insect characteristics help studentslearn to identify 75 common species. Students also practicedeductive reasoning in solving biology puzzles. Requires 48KApple II, Ile, or lk.Focus Media, Inc.

Mendelbugs (1986)5-inch disk; Level 5-10. Lets the students select parent Men-delbugs and trace traits through monohybrid and dihybridcrosses. They can predict the types of offspring that should beproduced and compare these predictions with the actualoutcomes as generations of Mendelbugs "hatch" before theireyes. Requires Apple II.Focus Media, Inc.

The Microorganism Simulator5 inch disk; Level 9-10. Provides students with a method ofunderstanding the ways in which common microorganismscarry out life processes. Students can view full-screen simula-tions involving the structure, locomotion, digestion, and re-productive behavior among the amoeba, paramecium andeuglena. Created to supplement use of the microscope. Re-quires Apple Ile.Focus Media, Inc.

Oh, Deer!Skills practice, simulation; Level 5-9. Based on real-life model.Challenges students to manage herd of white-tailed deer.During a five-year period, students make series of decisionsnecessary to maintain a herd size which is in balance with thenatural environment and human tolerance. Allows studentsto experience social pressures of this situation, as well aseffects of control measures on deer herd. Copy protected.Network version available. Apple KKillle/lIc/lIgs, 48K, 5-inch disk drive, Applesoft, DOS 3.3Conduit

Special Senses I: The Eye (1985)5-inch disk; Level 10-12. Comprehensive introduction to theeye. Excellent graphics and animation on the anatomy of theeye and basic principles of optics mechanism of human visionand the function of rods and cones. Pop quizzes and a testingsystem are built into software Lab Pack. Requires 48K AppleII computer.ComPress

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Computer interfaces/Data acquisition

Videodisc

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Taxonomy GameApple II, 48K, Disk; Level 9-12. Students must teach the com-puter to recognize and differentiate among protists, animalsand plants by phyla and characteristics. Program promptsstudents to provide questions the computer must ask to iden-tify the protists, plants, or animals. Students sharpen theirown ability to write questions and identify living things bybiological classifications. The teacher can examine the ques-tions for indications of pupil misconceptions.Queue

The Body ElectricApple 11, 64K, Disk; Level &college. This sophisticated yetasy-to-use computer-based tool enables teachers and stu-

dents to engage in investigations that up until now requiredmore expensive equipment. Students monitor and measurebrain waves, electrocardiograms and the electrical activity ofmuscles. The package comes with 3 gold-plated electrodes, aninterface that connects thesensor to the microcomputer and anextensive Teaching Guide with activities and worksheets.Queue

CardidcompApple II, PC 256K. Measures various indices of human heartperformance; includes transducer, interface and board.

ElexicompApple II, PC 256K. Measures reflex arc of different musclesystems; includes tranducer, interface and board.

PhysiogripApple II, PC 256K; Requires stimulator. Measures muscle re-sponse to point stimulation; includes transducer, interfaceand board.

SpirocompApple II, PC 256K. Measures human lung volume and capac-ity; includes transducer, interface and board.Ward's Natural Science Establishment

Bio kJ Videodisc; Bio Sci II. Videodisc and Hype:Card Stackfor MacintoshUsed with the Bio Sd Stacks produced by Videodiscovery,Inc. Bio Sd 11 offer expanded photos, movie sequences andcomputer graphics.Videodiscoveny, Inc.

Community of Living Things: RelationshipsAn Investigationof Biological RelationshipsStack allows teachers to redesign the disk by showing ex-amples of particular organisms, for instance protozoans, in-sects or plants. A lesson could be done on types of animal

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movement, classification or cell diversity.Produced by WHRO and the SYSCON Corp.

The Frog (1989)Two-sided 12-inch audiovisual learning device covering theinternal and external anatomy and physiology of the grassfrog Rana pipiens. Footage includes the live animals in theirnatural setting, laboratory dissection of preserved animals,histological slides of various tissue sections, diagrams ofanatomy, diagrams of analogous human body parts andphysiology, instructions on use of dissection instruments andtechniques, ahd warnings not to perform various procedureson unanaesthetized specimens.Optical Data Corp.

The Voyager VideoStack

A HyperCard Stack containing a collection of buttons that,once "pasted" into your own stacks, allows it to control thelaser disk player. Can be used as a remote control to controlany laser disk or as an authoring aid to develop a HyperCardstack to go with any laser disk.The Voyager Company

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B. Publishers & Vendors

Publishers and suppliers of products cited in this monographare listed below in alphabetical order. The addresses and phonenumbers when available were extracted from various catalogs,brochures and other sources. Send inquiry to specific supplierbefore sending order or monies. A list ofadditional organizationsand institutions with programs and materials on alternatives tothe use of animals begins on page 122. This listing should not beconstrued as an endorsem*nt of any product by NABT.

Addison-Wesley Publishing Company2725 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025; (415) 859-0300.

Argus ArchivesDept. AF-2, 228 East 49th St., New York, NY 10017;(212) 355. 6140

Arm5trong Medical IndustryP.O. Box 700, Lincolnshire, IL 60069; (800) 323-4220

Barnes and Noble(201) 767-7079

Barr Films

12801 Schabarum, P.O. Box 7878, Irwindale, CA 91706-7878;(818) 338-7878

Benchmark Films145 Scarborough, Briar Cliff Manor, NY 10510; (914) 762-3838

Berlet Films

1646 W. Kimmel! Rd., Jackson, MI 49201; (517) 784-6969

Biological Sciences Curriculum StudyP.O. Bex 930, Boulder, CO 80302; (719) 578-1136

Carolina Biological Supply Company1308 Rainey St., Burlington, NC 27216; (919) 226-6003/East:(800) 334-5551/West: (800) 547-1733

COMPress (division of Wadsworth, Inc.)P.O. Box 102, Wentworth, NH 03282

CONDI 'IT (divisio a of University of Iowa)Un ,.sity of Iowa, Oakdale Campus, Iowa City, IA 52242;

(319) 335-4100

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Connecticut Valley Biological82 Valley Rd., P.O. Box 326, Southampton, MA 01073; (413) 527-4030

Cross Educational Software504 E. Kentucky Ave., P.O. Box 1536, Ruston, LA 71270; (318) 255-8921

Discover Science Opportunities for Learning, Inc.20417 Nordhof St., Dept. R986, Chatsworth, CA 91311

Educational Activities, Inc.1937 Grand Avenue, Baldwin, NY 11510; (516) 223-46661(800) 645-3739

EduTech, Inc.1927 Culver Rd., Rochester, NY 14609; (716) 482-3151

Encyclopaedia Britannica Educational Corp.310 S. Michigan Ave., Chicago, IL 60605; (312) 347-7000/ (800) 554-9862

Epilepsy Foundation of America4351 Garden City Dr., Ste. 406, Landover, MD 20785; (301) 459-3700

Fisher ScientificEducational Materials Division4901 West Le Moyne St., Chicago, IL 60077; (312) 378-77701(800) 621-4769

Focus Media, Inc.839 Steward Ave., Garden City, NY 11530; (516) 764-89001(800) 645-8989

Harcourt Brace Jovanovich PublishersOrlando, FL 3288?; (407) 345-2000

Journal Films, Inc.930 Pitner Ave., Evanston, IL 60202; (800) 323-5448

Learning Corporation of Americac/o Coronet Film and Video, 108 Wilmot Rd., Deerfield, IL 60015; (800) 621-2131

Media DesignP.O. Box 3189, Boulder, CO 80307; (303) 443-2800

The Myrin Institute, Inc. for Adult Education521 Park Ave., New York, NY 10021; (212) 758-6475

National Teaching Aids1845 Highla-,d Ave., New Hyde Park, NY 11040; (718) 895-0898

NASCO901 Janesville Ave., P.O. Box 901, Fort Atkinson, WI 53538-0901; (800)558-9595

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National Geographic SocietyEducational Services, Departmen 89, 17th & M Sts., NW, Washington, DC20036; (202) 857-7000/(800) 638-4077

New Dimension Films85895 Lorarte Highway, Eugene, OR 97405; (503) 484-7125

Nystrom, division of Herff Jones, Inc.3333 Elston Ave., Chicago, IL 60618; (800) 621-8086

Optical Data Corp.20 Technology Dr., Box 4919, Warren, NJ 07060; (800) 524-2481

Phipps and Bird, Inc.8741 Landmark Rd., P.O. Box 27342, Richmond, VA 23261; (804) 264-7590

Phoenix/BFA Films and Video, Inc.102 Dawn Heights, Scottdepot, NV 25560; (304) 757-7688

Prentke Hall MediaRt. 59 at Brook Hill Drive, W. Nyack, NY 10994; (914) 358-8800

Prentice Hall, Inc.200 Old Tappan Rd, Old Tappan, NJ 07685; (800) 852-8024 or (617) 455-1200

Queue, Inc.562 Boston Ave., Bridgeport, CT 06610; (203) 3354U9081(800) 232-2224

Sargent-Welch Scientific Co.Central Regional Office7400 N. Linder Ave., P.O. Box 1026, Skokie, IL 50077; (312) 676-0172/(800) 727-4368

Scholastic Software, Inc.730 Broadway, New York, NY 10003; (212) 505-3000 or (800) 392-217DOrders to: P.O. Box 7502, 2931 E. McCarty St., Jefferson City, MO65102; (800)325-6149

Schoolmaster Science745 State Circle, P.O. Box 1941, Ann Arbor, MI 48106; (800) 521-2832

SCIDEAS516 1 Idgeway St., Warrenton, NC 27589

Science Kit and Boreal Laboratories777 E. Park Dr., Tonowanda, NY 14150-6782/P.O. Box 2726, Sante Fe Springs,CA 90670-4490; (800) 828-7777

Stanton Films2417 Artesia Blvd., Redondo Beach, CA 90278; (213) 542-6573

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Ventura Educational Systems3440 Brokenhill St., Newbury Park, CA 913210; (805) 499-1407

Videodiscovery, Inc.1515 Dexter Ave. N. Ste. 400, Seattle, WA; 98109-3017; (206) 285-54001(800)548-3472

The Voyager Company2139 Manning Ave., Los Angeles, CA 90025; (213) 474-0032

Ward's N, ural Science Establishment, Inc.5100 W. Henrietta Rd., P.O. Box 92912, Rochester, NY 17692-9012; (716) 359-2502

Webster/McGraw-Hill1221 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY 10020; (212) 512-4100

WHRO Public Television and RadioConsortium for Interactive Instruction, 5200 Hampton Blvd., Norfolk ,VA23508; (804) 489-9476

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C. Selected Organizations

Selected organizations and institutions with programs and materials on alterna-tives to the use of animals.

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Alternatives To Animals (ATA)P.O. Box 7177, San Jose, CA 95150; (408) 996-1405

American Anti-Vivisection Society801 Old York Road, Ste. 204, Jenkintown, PA 19046; (215) 887-0816

AmericaL tssociation for Laboratory Animal Science (AALAS)70 Timber Creek Dr., Ste. 5, Cordova, TN 38018; (901) 754-8620

The American Fund for Alternatives to Animal Research175 W. 12th St., No. 16G, New York, NY 10011-8275; (212) 989-8073

American Humane AssociationP.O. Box 1266, Denver, CO 80201-1266; (800) 842-4637

American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (ASPCA)441 E. 92nd St., New York, NY 10128; (212) 876-7700

American Veterinary Medical Association1023 15th St., NW, Ste. 300, Washington, DC 20005; (202) 659-2040

Animal Legal Defense Fund1363 Lincoln Ave Ste. 7, San Rafael, CA 9,1901; (415) 459-08851(800) 922-FROG

Animal Welfare InstituteP.O. Box 3650, Washington, DC 20007; (202) 337-2333

Asociation of Veterinarians for Animal Rights22 Bradford Dr., Old Bridge, NJ 08857; (201) 679-5139

Canadian Council on Animal Care1105-151 Slater, Ottawa, Canada K1P 5H3

Center for A lternatives to Animal TestingJohn Hopkins University, 615 N. WolfeSt., Balti more, MD 21205; (301) 955-3343

Focus on AnimalsP.O. Box 150, Trumbull, CT 06611; (203) 377-1116

Foundation for Biomedical Research818 Connecticut Ave. N W, Third Floor, Washington, DC 20006; (202) 457-0654

Fund for the Replacement of Animals in Medical Experiments (FRAME)Eastgate House, 34 Stoney St., N. Hinghen, NG1, NB, U.K.

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The Humane Society of the United States2100 L St., NW, Washington, DC 20037; (202) 452-1100

Institute of Laboratory Animal ResourcesNational Research Council, National Academy of Sciences, 2101 ConstitutionAve., NW, Washington, DC 20418; (202) 334-2000

International Foundation for Ethical Research53 W. Jackson Blvd., Chicago, IL 60604; (312) 419-6990

Medical Research Modernization CommitteeP.O. Box 6036, Grand Central Station, New York, NY 10163-6018; (212) 876-1368

National Anti-Vivisection Society (NAVS)53 W. Jackson Blvd. #1552, Chicago, IL 60604; (312) 427-6065

National Association for Humane and Environmental E," -cation67 Salem Road, East Haddam, CT 06423; (203) 434-8666

National Science Teachers Association1742 Connecticut Ave., NW, Washington, DC 20009; (202) 328-5800

National Wildlife Federation1412 16th St., NW, Washington, DC 20036-2266; (202) 797-6800

National Zoological Park (part of the Smithsonian Institution)3001 Connecticut Ave. NW, Washington, DC; (202) 673-4800

Ohio State University and Ohio Academy of ScienceUniversity Laboratory Animal Resources, 6089 Godown Rd.Columbus, OH 43220; (614) 292-6446

People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA)P.O. Box 42516, Washington, DC 20015-0516; (301) 770-7444

Psychologists for the Ethical Treatment of AnimalsP.O. Box 87, New Gloucester, MA 04260

Physicians' Committee for Responsible MedicineP.O. Box 6322, Washington, DC 20015; (202) 483-1312

Scientists Center for Animal Welfare4805 St. Elmo, Bethesda, MD 20814; (301) 654-6390

Student Action Corps for AnimalsP.O. Box 15588, Washington, DC 20003-0588; (202) 543-8983

Western Humane Education Associationc/o Mickey Zeldef, 171 Bell Marin Keys Blvd., Novato, CA 94949

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Epilogue

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Some Final Thoughts

This monograph affirms the value of teaching biology as the study ofliving organisms, rather than dead specimens. Biology teachers can standfirm in their conviction that living organisms can be used in the classroomas long as appropriate care is given and that reasonable humane experi-mentation can be done.

It has been reported that the number of biology teachers completelyrejecting dissection increases every year (The Science Teacher 1987). Manyhave found that dissectionsimply does not meet theirobjectives and somejust do not have the time. Still others believe they can better prepare theirstudents for college with more concept-oriented experiences.

A shortcoming in the practice of keeping animals in the classroom isthe lack of knowledge among many teachers about the proper handlingof living organisms. In addition, many teachers are unfamiliar with thediseases that can be transmitted from animals to man or vice versa.Teacher education classes need to provide inservice training on thesesubjects ar nformation on the care and maintenance of animals.

It hat. .ome to our attention that most teachers have little or nobackground in the issue of animal welfare. When an incident occurs it istoo late to study the issue-there is no time for a teacher to re-examineanimal use in light of animal welfare. The growing controversy overdissection and the use of animals in the biology classroom can be usedpositively to infuse new ideas and changes in the traditional curriculum.The ethics of animal use should be discussed and decisionmaking lessonsrelated to the use of animals should be introduced. The inclusion oflessons reflecting respect for animal life is emerging as an importantconsideration.

A fourth "R" may be added to the principles ofalternatives to the useof animals. This is to re-examine seriously the need for dissection andinvasive experimental procedures such as injection of known toxic sub-stances, deprivation of foodor nutrients and the infliction of stress on theanimal. A careful re-examination of dissection and the curriculum objec-tives it achieves may well reveal a need to replace it with learningactivities that are more relevant to the students' educational require-ments. An alternative teaching method may also be a better representa-tion of current biological information.

This monograph is part of our commitment to provide direction andguidance to teachers preparing for the curriculum changes that altern:4-Lives To dissection may require. It is not NABT's intention to mandate theprohibition of the use of animals in biology teaching but rather to provideteachers with sufficient information to determine for themselves which

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teaching activities are appropriate. NABT makes no claims that the alter-natives discussed in the monograph are the best and most comprehensive.

Instead, NABT's goal in this project is to encourage members to main-tain an open mind about alternatives to dissection. To foster this attitude,teacher workshops are being considered for conventions and summerupdate programs. They will familiarize teachers with alternative lessonsand methods for teaching ethics and values clarification relating to animaluse. Teachers are encouraged to submit lessons or labs that providealternatives to dissection to NABT's journal, The American Biology Teacher.ABT submissions must follow specific guidelines. See ABT (November/December 1989) or request a copy from NABT.

In summary, biology teachers should interpret the introduction ofalternatives to the use of animals as a professional growth experience. Inthe words of Christine Stevens, president of Animal Welfare Institute,"We have the opportunity in the training of young future scientists toencourage them in paths of symphathy and consideration for fellowanimals. We should avoid developing a harsh and unfeeling attitude, bothfor the benefit of animals and for the benefit of young people and theirintellectual and emotional development" (1980, p. 74).

The value systems of students and society as a whole are changing.The true measure of a good biology teacher is one who can adapt to thesechanges and make use of a variety of teaching methods. This way, a highschool biology course can evolve into a dynamic science curriculum.

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"'Acknowledgments

NABT wishes to thank the Geraldine R. Dodge Foundation for itsgenerous support which made possible both this monograph and thesymposium and teacher workshops that led up to it.

Other institutions andindividuals have helped enrich the project staffand the Task Force's knowledge on the issues involved in dissection andvivisection. Christine Stevens of the Animal Welfare Institute pointed outthe need to revise NABT's Guidelines for the Use of Live Animals. AWIalso donated funds toward the project and allowed NABT the use ofresources unavailable elsewhere.

Ohio State University, Laboratory Animal Resources and the OhioAcademy of Science invited NABT's Task Force to participate in a work-shop conducted asipart of its project. Margaret DuberSnyder, D.V.M., andher staff introduced us to new and broad perspectives in the "Workshopfor Teachers on the Humane Care and Use ofVertebrates in Education andStudent Research." A special thanks to Crowe Ward, D.V.M., of theUniversity of Kentucky forallowing workshop space for three Task Forcemembers to attend the above-mentioned workshop on its campus inLexington, Kentucky.

Terri Champney, D.V.M., of Northern Virginia Community College-Loudoun Campus, generously made available resources on the topic ofzoonoses.

Last but not least,my heartfelt thanks to those teachers who expressedopinions on NABT's position on alternatives to dissection. Their com-ments guided the direction of this project.

To Michelle and Alison, my thanks for helping me edit the draftmanuscript and to one and all, my sincere appreciation for your supportand commitment to this most important project.

Rosalina V. HairstonProject Director

NABT Board of DirectorsPresident:

Vice President:

Past President:

Secretary/Treasurer:

Directors:

Nancy V. RideLour

Joseph D. McInerney

John Penick

Nancy S. Van Vranken

Gerry MadrazoDianne ThielJames H. MeyerPatsye D. Peebles

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Task Force Alton Biggs, Allen High School, Allen, TexasDon Emmeluth, Fulton-Montgomery Community College,

Johnstown, New YorkJon Hendrix, Department of Biology, Ball State University, Mun-

cie, IndianaRea lista Rodriguez, science specialist, Fairfax County Public

Schools, Fairfax, Virginia

Reviewers Patty Finch, National Association for Humane and Environ-mental Education, East Haddam, Connecticut

David Gilmore, Rocky Hill High School, Rocky Hill, ConnecticutMartha Green, high school science consultant, Florida Depart-

ment of Education, Tallahassee, FloridaRandall Lockwood, Humane Society of the United States, Wash-

ington, D.C.Gary Nakagiri, coordinator, Mathematics/Science, San Mateo

County Office of Education, Redwood City, CaliforniaF. Barbara Orlans, Kennedy Institute of Ethics, Georgetown Uni-

versity, Washington, DCBruce R. Tulloch, Bureau of Science Education, State Education

Department, Albany, New York

Contributors Neal Barnard, Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine,Washington, DC

Craig A. Berg, University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WisconsinThomas Bickelman, National Association for Humane and Envi-

ronmental Education, East Haddam, ConnecticutCharles E. Butterfield, emeritus member, Lakeland, FloridaTerri Champney, Northern Virginia Community College Lou-

doun Campus, VirginiaSam Chauin, Scottsburg Junior High School, IndianaJulie Dunlap, Humane Society of the United States, Washington,

DC

Steven Gilbert, Ball State University, Muncie, hidianaRoland Nardone, Center for Training in Molecular and Cellular

Biology, Catholic University of America, Washington, DC

William H. Peltz, Greenwich Academy, ConnecticutAlfred F. Pogge, Quincy College, Illinois

Felicia Perry, Allen High School, TexasJudith Reitman, National Association for Humane and Environ-

mental Education, East HaddAm, ConnecticutMargaret Duber Snyder, Ohio State University, OhioChristine Stevens, Animal Welfare Institute, Washington, DCKarol Sylcox, National Association for Humane and Environ-

mental Education, East Haddam, Connecticut

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Appendix 1A. Principles ar.d Guidelines for the Use of Animals

National Academy of ScienceNational Research CouncilInstitute of Laboratory Animal

Resources

The humane study of animals in precollege education can provideimportant learning experiences in science and ethics and should beencouraged. Maintaining dassroom pets in preschool and grade schoolcan teach respect for other species, as well as proper animal husbandrypractices. Introduction of secondary school students to animal studies inclosely supervised settings can reinforce those early lessons and teach theprinciples of humane care and use of animals in scientific inquiry. TheNational Research Council recommends compliance with the followingprinciples whenever animals are used in precollege education or inscience fair projects.

Principle 1. Observational and natural history studies that are not intrusive (that is,do not interfere with an animal' shealthor well-being or cause it discomfort)are encouraged for all dasses or organisms. When an intrusive study ofa living organism is deemed appropriate, consideration should be givenfirst to using plants (including lower plants such as yeast and fungi) andinvertebrates with no nervous systems or with primitive ones (includingprotozoa, planaria, and insects). Intrusive studies of invertebrates withadvanced nervous systems (such as octopi) and vertebrates should beused only when lower invertebrates are not suitable and only under theconditions stated below . Principle 10.

Principle 2. Supervision shall be provided by individuals who are knowledgeableabout and experienced with the health, husbandry, care, and handling ofthe animal species used and whounderstand applicable laws, regulationsand policies.

Principle 3. Appropriate care for animals m ust be provided daily, including weekends,holidays, and other times when school is not is session. This care mustinclude:

a. nutritious food and clean, fresh water;b. dean housing with space and enrichment suitable for normalspecies behaviors; andc. temperature and lighting appropriate for the species.

Principle 4. Animals should be healthy and free of diseases that can be transmitted tohumans or to other animals. Veterinary care must be provided as needed.

Principle 5. Students and teachers should report immediately to the school healthauthority all scratches, bites, and other injuries; allergies; or illnesses.

Principle 6. Prior to obtaining animals for educational purposes, it is *rative thatthe school develop a plan for their procurement and uithr ..J disposition.Animals must not be captured from or released into the wild without theapproval of the responsible wildlife and public health officials. Wheneuthanasia is necessary, it should be performed in accordance with the

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most recent recommendations of the American Veterinary MedicalAssociation's Panel Report on Euthanasia Uournal of the AmericanVeterinary Medical Association, 188 (31. 252-268, 1986, et sec 1. It shouldbe performed only by someone trained in the appropriate technique.

Principle 7. Students shall not conduct experimental procedures on animals that:a. are likely to cause pain or discomfort or interfere with an animal'shealth or well-being;b. induce nutritional deficiencies or toxicities; orc. expose animals to microorganisms, ionizing radiation, cancer-producing agents, or any other harmful drugs or chemicals capableof causing disease, injury, or birth defects in humans or animals.

In general, procedures that muse pain in humans are considered to causepain ir other vertebrates.

Principle 8. Experiments on avian embryos that might result in abnormal chicks or inchicks that might experience pain or discomfort shall be terminated 72hours prior to the expected date of hatching. The eggs shall be destroyedto prevent inadvertent hatching.

Principle 9. Behavioral conditioning studies shall not involve aversive stimuli. Instudies using positive reinforcement, animals should not be deprived ofwater; food deprivation intervals should be appropriate for the speciesbut should not continue longer than 24 hours.

Principle 10. A plan for conducting an experiment with living animals must beprepared in writing and approved prior to initiating the experiment or toobtaining the animals. Proper experimental design of projects and concernfor animal welfare are important learning experiences and contribute torespect for and appropriate care of animals. The plan shall be reviewedby a committee composed of individuals who have the knowledge tounderstand and evaluate it and who have the authority to approve ordisapprove it. The written plan should include the followhig:

a. a statement of the specific hypotheses or principles to be tested,illustrated, or taught;b. a summary of what is known about the subject under study,including references;c. a justification for the use of the species selected and considerationof why a lower vertebrate or invertebrate cannot be used; andd. a detailed description of the methods and procedures to be used,including experimental design; data analysis; and all aspects ofanimal procurement, care, housing, use and disposal.

Exceptions Exceptions to principles 7-10 may be granted under special circ*mstancesby a panel appointed by the school principal or his or her designee. Thispanel should consist of at least three individuals including a scienceteacher, a teacher of a nonsdence Subject, and a scientist or veterinarianwho has expertise in the subject matter involved.' At least one panelmember should not be affiliated with the school or science fair, and noneshould be a member of the student's family.

' In situations where an appropriate scientist is not available to assist thestudent, the Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources (ILAR) might beable to provide referrals.

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B. Science Service: Rules of the International Science and Engineering Fair

Rules The booklet contains the rules for participation in the InternationalScience and Engineering Fair (ISEF). The directors of all regional fairswhich will be affiliated and participating in the ISEF must conduct theregional fair according to these rules. Copies of the booklet are availablefrom Science Service, 1719 N Street, N.W., Washington, DC 20036.Permission to reprint with credit is granted. Rules may be updatedyearly.

Before beginning any experimental work with vertebrate animals orhumans, carefully read the rules in order to ensure compliance by thestudent experimenter. The followingareas are the most critical in termsof compliance:

1. The use, misuse, and sacrifice of animals2. The use of toxic substances by the high school experimenter3. Nutridonal deficiency experiments4. The use of humans in any wayFailure to comply with the rules regardless of the institutional rules,

will result in disqualification of the student from participation incompetition in all ISEF affiliated fairs.

Recommendations Them . value of the selected student research topics shouldbe the primary t.onsideration of both the teachers and the fair directors.Science Service is proud to be associated in this important activity whichprovides incentives for the development of talent in scientific andtechnological fields among creativeyoung people. We urge an increase I.the efforts of all persons involved to extend and expand the influence andeffectiveness of science and engineering fairs and we offer our continuedassistance and counsel to help assure succcss.

The development of the scientific method can be enhanced whenteachers or supervisors insist that research has dearly defined objectives.Research should dem onstratesden tific principles or answer propositions.It is suggested that this be completed before the student begins anyresearch.

A paper describing the research, notebooks, computer programs, orother relevant written materials are encouraged and may be displayed.

C. Science Service: Westinghouse Science Talent Search

130

The rules for the Westinghouse Science Talent Search state in part:"No projects involving live vertebrate animal experimentation will beeligible. Projects involving behavioral observations of animals in theirnatural habitat and human subjects are excluded from this ruling and areeligible."

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D. Animal Welfare Institute: Rules Governing Treatment of Animals by High School BiologyStudents

1. Animals being observed by students must always be maintained in themaximum possible condition of health, comfort and well-being.

2. No vertebrate animal used for primary or secondary school teachingmay be subjected to any experiment or procedure which interfereswith its normal health or causes it pain or distress.

REASONS WHY ANIMAL EXPERIMENTS BY

HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS SHOULD BE PAINLESS

1. MORALLY, it is indefensible to hurt or kill animals unless originalcontributions which will advance human health and welfare can beexpected. Elementary and secondary school studies do not meet thistest.

2. PSYCHOLOGICALLY, it can be emotionally upsetting for youngstersto participate in harming or killing animals, or even worse, it may beemotionally desensitizing or hardening to immature minds.

3. SOCIALLY, in these days of widespread violence fostering personalacquaintance with inflicting pain on lesser creatures should be avoided.

4. EDUCATIONALLY, teaching a bou t abnormal sta tes before the studen thas a sound grasp of normal physiology is against common sense anddoes not advance scientific education.

5. SCIENTIFICALLY, promoting teenage animal surgery or induction ofpainful pathological conditions (which are very often poorly done inthe unsanitary conditions of a student's home and have no scientificvalue) fosters an improper regard for animal life and an unbalancedvi ew of biology which will rebound adversely when the next generationof scientists comes of age.

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E. Canadian Council on Animal Care: Guiding Principles Governing the Useof Animals in the Classroom at the Pre-University Level

I. Purpose These guiding principles have been prepared by the CanadianCouncil on Animal Care. They are recommended for use by Departmentsof Education and Boards of Education across Canada in order to ensureadequaZP sa 'eguards exist for the proper care and use of animals inexperimentation in the classroom, in the schools, in thCr jurisdiction.

These guidelines are not for use by students preparing projects for exlaitin Science Fairs. Students preparingprojects for Science Fairs must adhereto the Youth Science Fair Regulations for Animal Experimentation, asprepared and distributed, by the Youth Science Foundation, Suite 302,151 Slater St., Ottawa, Ontario la P 5H3.

II. Philosophic:-1 Biological experimentation i nvol ving animalsin ihe classroom is essentialconsiderations for an understanding of living processes. Such studies should lead to a

respect for all living things. All aspects of the study must be within thecomprehensions and capabilities of the student undertaking the study.

III. Care ofexperimental animals

132

Lower orders of life are preferable subjectsfor experimentation at the pre-university level. Such lower orders as bacteria, fungi, protozoa, andinsects can reveal much basic biological information; they should be usedfor experimentation, wherever and whenever possible.

The care of experimental animals in the school should embody theprinciples laid down in the Guide to the Care and Use of ExperimentalAnimals, as prepared and distributed by the Canadian Council onAnimal Care. (address below)

Ths., following principles are necessary in order to provide optimal animalcare:

a. The maintenance of animals in a classroom shared by studentson a long term basis, is not recommended. Therefore, animalguar tersspecifically for housin g of ani mals should be provided.

b. All experimental animals used in teaching programs must beproperly cared for. Animal quarters should be madecomfortable by provisions for sanitation, protection from theelements and have suffident space for normal behavioural andpostural requirements of the species. The living quarters shallhave surfaces that may be easily cleaned, good ventilation andlighting, well regulated temperatures and cages of sufficientsize to prevent overcrowding. Animals must be protected fromdirect sunlight or other environmental factors which maydisturb the well-being of the animal.

c. Food should be palatable, of sufficient quantity and balancedto maintain a good standard of nutrition. Animals shall not beallowed to go below the maintenance level of nutrition. Cleandrinking water shall be available at all time.,. Containers for foodand water should be of a design, made specifically for thatpurpose.

d. Colonies and animal quarters shall be supervised by a science

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IV. Experimental studies

teacher experienced in animal care. The students and otheranimal care staff shall be trained and required to handle theanimals gently and humanely.

e. All animals must be disposed of in a humane manner. If

euthanasia has to be carried out an approved humane methodmust be used and carried out by an adult experienced in the useof such procedures.

f. The use of animals must comply with existing local, provincialor federal legislation.

g. The procurement and use of wild animals and birds mustcomply with the Migratory Birds Convention Act of Canada,the Convention on International Trade on Endangered Speciesof Wild Fauna & Flora (ratified by Order in Council July 3, 1975)as well as any existing legislation at the Provincial levelconcerned with wild animals and exotic species.

1. All experiments should be carried out under the supervision of acompetent science teacher. It is the responsibility of the qualifiedscience teacher to ensure the student has t necessarycomprehension for the study to be undertaken.

2. Students should not be allowed to take animals home to carry outexperimental studies. All studies involving animals mnat be carriedout in a suitable area in the school.

3. All students carrying out projects involving vertebrate animalsmust adhere to the following guidelines:

A. No experimental procedures shall be attempted on avertebrate animal that should subject it to pain or distinctdiscomfort, or interfer .. with its health.

B. Students shall not perform surgery on vertebrate animals.C. Experimental procedures shall not involve the use of:

a. microorganisms which can cause diseases in man oranimals.

b. ionizing radiation.c. cancer producing agents.d. drugs or chemicals at toxic levels.e. alcohol in any form.f. drugs that may produce pain.g. drugs known to produce adverse reactions, side

effects, or capable of producing birth deformities.D. Experimental treatments should not include electric shock,

exercise until exhaustion, or other distressing stimuli.E. Behavioural studies should use only reward (positive

reinforcem ent) and not punishment in training programs.F. If egg embryos are subjected to experimental

manipulations, the embryo must be destroyed humanely2 days prior to hatching. If normal egg embryos are to behatched, satisfactory humaneconsiderations must be madefor disposal of the young birds.

4. The use of anaesthetic agents, by students, is not recommendedand in the case of some anaesthetics not permitted by law.

5. Information on the care, housing and management for individualspecies, as well suitable experiments for use at the pre-universitylevel, may be obtained from the Canadian Council on Animal Care,151 Slater St., Suite 1105, Ottawa, Ontario K1P 5I43.

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F. Youth Science Foundation: Humane Rules for Canadian Science Fairs

Regional Representatives of theCanada-Wide Science Fair approvednew regulations May 23, 1975 which eliminate the use of vertebrateanimals for science fair projects unless these projects are purelyobservations of normal living patterns ofanimals in the wild or in zoos orof normal activities of pets or other domestic animals.

The decision followed several years' attempts to control cruelexperiments for science fairs by rules against those which caused harm toliving vertebra tes. Despite such rules, some studen ts con tin ued to conductprojects that caused animal suffering. The Regional Representatives,therefore, drew up the following regulations which are now in effect inCanada.

Regulations for Animal Experimentation in Science Fairs

'3 4

1. Biological experimentation is essential for an understanding of livingprocesses; such as studies should lead to a respect for all living things.r.apable students, anxious to pursue a career in biological sciences-lust receive the necessary encouragement and direction. All aspectsof the project must be within the comprehensions and capabilities ofthe student undertaking the study.

Biological experimentation is subject to Vgal restrictions, includingamongst others:Criminal Code of Canada, section 402 - Cruelty to Animals;Animal Disease and Protection Act;Animals for Research Act (Ontario);Regulations for I-lousing, Care and Treatment of Animals Used for

Biological or Medical Purposes (Alberta).YS17 regulations are more restrictive in view of:

a) the need to maintain a positive public image towards theFoundation and its programmes;

b) the lack of expertise of student investigators and many cftheir immedi tie supervisors.

All animal experimentation must conform to the guidelines laid downby the Canadian Council on Animal Care.

2, It must be stressed that lower orders such as bacteria, fungi, protozoaand insects can reveal much basi c biological information. If experimen tsare to be conducted on living subjects for Science Fair projects then onlylower orders of life may be used.

3. Vertebrate animals (birds, fish, mammals, amphibians, reptiles) arenot to be used in any active experiments which may be delelaious tothe health or physical integrity of the animals. This permits:

a) observations of normal livingpatterns of wild animms in thefree living state or in zoological parks, gardens or aquaria;

b) observe tions of norm allivingpatterns of pc ts,fish or domesticanimals;

c) behavioral experiments with positive reinforcement(rewards).

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4. No living vertebrate animals shall be displayed in exhibits in sciencefairs.

5. Cells such as red blood cells, other tissue cells, plasma or serumpurchased or acquired from biological supply houses or researchfacilities may be used in Science Fair projects.

6. Chick embryos nhtdies (domestic chickenGallus domesticus) onlyobservational studies on normal embryos are permitted. No externalinterventions (e.g. drugs, chemicals) may be made. If eggs are to behatched, then the chicks must be transferred to appropriate care (e.g.farm rearing). Otherwise all embryos must be destroyed, preferablyby the 12th day of incubation and definitely by the 19th day. Anacceptable method is storage in a domestic freezer for at least 48 hours.No eggs capable of hatching may be exhibited in science fair.

7. Experiment; involving the human animal shall conform with theseregulations as they apply to animals:

a) evidence of informed consent must be provided.b) any stress should be limited to levels which the person

concerned would voluntarily undertake in normal physicalor mental activity;

c) any invasive procedures, especially blood sampling, mustbe performed under the supervision of a qualified healthcare professional.

8. All experiments shall be carried out under the supervision of acompetent sdence teacher. It shall be the responsibility of the qualifiedscience teacher to ensure the student has the necessary comprehensionfor the study to be undertaken. Whenever possible specificallyqualified experts' in the field shall be consulted.

Tor information and names of qualified experts write to:Canadian Council on Animal Care, 1105-151 Slater St., Cktawa,

Ontario K1P 5113Youth Science Foundation, 805-151 Slater St., Ottawa,

Ontario K1P 5113

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Curriculum Guides & State Frameworks Consulted

Arizona: "Science Skills" 1986.Arkansas: Student Assessment Volume Student Performance Results 1988,

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Council on Animal Care: March 1989."Regulations for Animal Experimentation in ScienceFairs." YouthScience Foundation: January 1984.Science Fair Regulations Youth Science Foundation, Suite 904,51 Slater Street, Ottowa, Canada KIP 5H3.Syllabus of the Basic Principles of Laboratory Animal Science.Canadian Council on Animal Care October 1985.

Colorado: Science Task Force Report, Apri114, 1984.District ofColumbia: Science Biology Course Objectives.Florida: Curriculum Framework for Grades 9-12, Adult Basic Programs,

Florida Department of Education, Division of Public Schools,Bureau of Curriculum Services.Curriculum Frameworks Grades 6-8, 1986-1987, Florida Depart-ment of Education, Division of Public Schools, Bureau ofCurriculum Services.Minim= Student Performance Standards for Florida Schools,1986-87, 1988-89, 1989-90,1990-91, Beginning Grades 3, 5, 8and 11, Computer Literacy and Science.Student Performance Standards of Excellence for Florida Schoolsin Mathematics, Science, Social Studies and Writing, Grades 3,5, 8 and 12, 1984-85 through 1988-89, Florida Department ofEducation.

Uniform Student Performance Standards for Grades 9-12.Uniform Student Performance Standards for Selected Courses,Grades 6-8 for Florida Schools.

Georgia: Ouality Core Curriculum Program Area: Biology 9-12 (CollegePreparatory, General Curriculum, Vocational).Quality Core Curriculum Program Area: Human Anatomy andPhysiology (9-12).

Quality Core Curriculum Program Area: K-8.Quality Core Curriculum Program Area: Life Science (seventh).Quality Core Curriculum Program Arca: Science, Technologyand Society (9-12).

Hawaii: Science Curriculum Guide, Grades 9-12. 1981.Idaho: mo_ndary School Courses of Study. State of Idaho, Biology I:

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Board of Education, City of Chicago, 1966.StaGoals for Learning and Sample Learning Objectives,Biological and Physical Sciences, Grades.Objectives for Biology Whitney M. Young High School

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Indiana: Course and Curriculum Area Descriptions for Indiana Schools,Indiana Department of Education, Center for School Improve-ment and Performance."Guidelines in the Use of Animals by Elementary and SecondarySchool Students," 1973.Indiana Science Proficiency Guide, Fall 1986 Draft, Center forSchool Improvement and Performance, Indiana Department ofEducation.Science Course Descriptions.Science Proficiency Guide. Indiana Department of Education.June1987.

Iowa: "A Toll for Assessing and Revising the Science Curriculum,"Apple Ile or Ilc, 128K, 80-column card.Iowa Department of Education, Instruction & Curriculum - AGuide to Curriculum Development in Science.

Kansas: Guidelines for Progran Development - Science, Kansas StateDepartment of Education.

Kentucky: "Program of Studies for Science.""Science Skills Continuum" Kentucky Department of Education,1988.

Maine: (Local school districts determine their own curricula)Maine Educational Assessment, Content Domain Survey,Elementary Science 1987-88.Maine EdIL.tional Assessment, Content Domain Survey,Intermediate Science, 1987-88.Maine Educational Assessment, Content Domain Survey,Secondary Science, 1987-88.Sam ple Curriculum Guide: "Developing Curriculum in Science,"

Maryland: Safety Manual K-12ScienceL-A Maryland Curricular Framework

Michigan: Essential Performance Objectives for Science Education, GradesK-9, Michigan State Board of Education. October 1985.

Mississippi: Mississippi Curriculum Structure Science, State Department ofEducation of School Improvement, Jackson, Mississippi, 1986.Philosophy, Goals, Skills and Concepts, Third Printing, 1988.

Missouri: Cor_Competencies and KeySkills for Missouri Schools for Grades2 through 10. September 1986, Missouri Department of Elemen-tary and Secondary Education.

Montana: Montana Rural Education Curriculum Guide 1984. Compiled byMontana Rural Teachers, Montana County Superintendent,Montana Office of Public Instruction.

Nevada: Elementary_Course of StudySecondary Course of StudyNevada Deaartment of Education Amendments to SecondaryCourse of StudyNevada State Board of Education, "Objectives, Standards Met inFour Major Areas and Skills and Attitudes Acquired."

New Jersey: Elementary Science Curriculum Guide. 1985.New Mexico: Science Competencies Exit Level and Third. Fifth and EiRhth

Level Checkpoints. 1985.

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New York: Elementary Science Syllabus.Elementary Science Syllabus, Su ppJe. ern w the Syllabus Leve(same as above). Reprinted 1988.Elementary Science Syllabus, Supplement to t he Syllabu s Level II,(same as above). Reprinted August 1988.General Biology Syllabus. Reprinted 1988."Guidelines for the Use of Vertebrate Animals in Elementary andSecondary School Programs of New York State."Regents Biology Resource Units, The University of the State ofNew York, The State Education Department, Bureau of Curricu-lum Development, Albany, New York 12234. 1984.Regents Biology Syllabus, The University of the State of NewYork, The State Education Department, Bureau of CurriculumDevelopment, Albany, NY. Reprinted 1984.Science Syllabus for Middle and Junior High Schools, Reprinted1988,

1) "Living Systems: Organisms, Block A"2) "Living Systems: Human Systems, Block B"3) "Living Systems: Micro-organisms, Block C"

North Carolina: Teacher Handbook Science Grades K-12"Biology" North Carolina Competency-Based Curriculum, Divi-sion of Science, Instructional Services, North Carolina, Depart-ment of Public Instruction, Raleigh, NC 1985.

Oklahoma: "Oklahoma Learner Outcomes" Grades 3, 7, 10, Region Sum-mary, March 1986.Suggested Learner Outcomes, Language Arts, Math, Reading,Science, Social Studies, Grades 1-8" Oklahoma State Departmentof Education. 2nd Edition, 1986.Suggested Learner Outcomes, "Science" Oklahoma StateDepartment of Education, Oklahoma City, Ok. July 1985.

Oregon: Science Comprehensive Curriculum Goals - A Model for LocalCurriculum Development, June 1989, Oregon Department ofEducation, Verne A. Duncan, State Superintendent of PublicInstruction.

Pennsylvania: "Guiding Principles in the Use of Animals by Secondary SchoolStudents and Science Club Members" These principles have beenprepared and approved by a committee composed of representa-tives from the following organizations: American Association ofLaboratory Animal Science, AmericanDental Association Ameri-can Medical Association, American Pharmaceutical Association,American Veterinary Medical Association, Institute of Labora-tory Animal Resources NRC/NAS and National Society forMedical Research.

Recommended Secoedary Science Competency Continuum forPennsylvania Schools. Science. Technology and ScWty. Earthand Space Science, Physical Science, Life Science, Chemistry,Biology, Physics. Pennsylvania Department of Education, Bu-reau of Curriculum and Instruction, 1987."The Useof Live Animals in the Schools of Pennsylvania," Bureau

144

IV. - ERICChapter 2, "The 3 R.s: Redur:tion, Refinement, and Replacement," includes biology teaching objectives, alternatives that use the 3 R's, and lessons that use the 3 R's. Chapter - [PDF Document] (158)

Rhode Island:

South Carolina:

South Dakota:

Tennessee:

Texas:

Utah:

Vermont:

Virginia:

Washington:

West V'..ginia:

Wisconsin:

Wyoming:

of Curriculum and Instruction, Pennsylvania DepartmentEducation, Harrisburg, Revised September 1987.Basic Education Plan (BEP), Science Curriculum Standards andIndicators.Basic Skills Assessment Program:State Science Objectives Grades1-8. South Carolina Department of Education, March 1986."Outline of High School Credit Courses - Science" South Caro-lina Department of Education. May 1984.(Science curricula decided at District level.)South Dakota Framework for Science Curriculum Development.Kindergarten-Twelve 1980.South Dakota Science Curriculum Guide Kindergarten-Twelve,Office of Curriculum and Instruction, Division of Elementary andSecondary Education, Richard F. Kneip Building, Pierre, SD57501. 1982.

Science Curricu urn Guide Biology I, State of Tennessee, Depart-ment of FO..cation, May 1988.

&leiice Curriculum Gu ide Biology II, State of Tennessee, Depart-ment of Education, May 1988.State Board of Education Rules for Curriculum. Texas EducationAgency, Austin, TX.Elementary and Secondary Core Curriculum, Field Trial Docu-ment, 1984-85, Utah State Office of Education.Flamework for the Development of . ScienceScot2e a ncl SeAmence1986.

Safety and Science Teaching. Commonwealth of Virginia, De-partment of Education, Division of Sciences and Elementary Ad-ministration, Richmond, VA 23216. (May 1984).Science Program of Studies 7-12, Fairfax County Public Schools,Department of Instructional Services, Division of CurriculumServices, Fairfax, VA. Revised 1987.Standards of Learning Objectivls., Commonwealth of Virginia,Department of Education, Richmond, VA. 23216, January 1983.Guidelines for Science Curriculum in Washington Schools,Division of Instructional Programs and Services, Office of theSuperintendent of Public Instruction, Old Capitol Building,

09m85e0s4f,oJrucn

een1e9ral'and Vocational Education WestVirginia Department of EducationScience Program of StudyA Guide to Curriculum Planning in Science, Wisconsin Depart-ment of Public Instruction, 125 South Webster Street, P.O. Box7841, Madison, WI 53707-7841. 1986.School District Standards and RulesWyoming Standards of Excellence for Science Education, Wyo-ming Department of Education, Hathaway Building, Cheyenne,WY 82002. 1989.

! 6 1145

IV. - ERICChapter 2, "The 3 R.s: Redur:tion, Refinement, and Replacement," includes biology teaching objectives, alternatives that use the 3 R's, and lessons that use the 3 R's. Chapter - [PDF Document] (159)

Index

accidents 8 observation of animals 23, 26,41animal welfare organizations .. 92-93,122-123 sample lessons 77-89animal welfare writers 94 owl pellets 26aquariums 4 pet stores 2bird behavior 26 preserved specimens ......... .......2,20cages 3 rabbits 7cats 77 rabies .9, 11cell culture 22,25 rats 6chicken wings 73 sharks 50computer programs 21, 49,112-117 shells 25

sample lessons 50-67 skulls 25demonstration 20 snails 26,84diseases 8-11 squid 69dissection videodiscs 21,49,116-117

argumehis in favor of 13,18 zebras 25arguments opposed to ....13,18,124-125educational objectives of 16-17history ofresearch on

13

18dogs 25dry labs 21,22earthworms 31

ecology 25,41ethics 90-91,124

sample lessons 95-103films 21,41, 109-112

sample lessons 42-48fish 4,36flatworms 26frogs 4,29,34,45,52,55,

58,61,63,66,87fruit flies 24genetics 24-25gerbils 4,7Graham, jenifer 13,90guinea pigs 5hamsters 6heart 66human anatomy 39,42human physiology 22,42mice 5models 21,28,108

sample lessons 29-40NABT 1,16,19,26,27,

90,124-125,126

146

IV. - ERICChapter 2, "The 3 R.s: Redur:tion, Refinement, and Replacement," includes biology teaching objectives, alternatives that use the 3 R's, and lessons that use the 3 R's. Chapter - [PDF Document] (2024)

FAQs

What are the 3Rs of animal research refinement? ›

The Three Rs principle was launched in the early 1960s by two English biologists, Russel and Burch in their book “The Principle of Humane Experimental Technique”. The 3 Rs stand for Replacement, Reduction and Refinement. Replacement alternatives refer to methods which avoid or replace the use of animals.

What is 3r reduction refinement replacement? ›

The 3Rs (Replacement, Reduction and Refinement) are accepted internationally as critical components of the ethical, humane and responsible care and use of animals for scientific purposes. Methods that permit a given purpose of an activity or project to be achieved without the use of animals.

What is the 3r principle of refinement? ›

Replacement: The substitution for conscious living higher animals of insentient material; Reduction: Reduction in the number of animals used to obtain information of given amount and precision; Refinement: Any decrease in the severity of inhumane procedures applied to those animals, which still have to be used.

What is the 3r principle of replacement? ›

The “3Rs alternatives” refers to the replacement, reduction, and refinement of animals used in research, teaching, testing, and exhibition. Drs. William Russell and Rex Burch first described the 3Rs in 1959 in their book, "The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique".

How can we apply 3 RS in our daily lives? ›

  1. You can apply the 3Rs (Reduce, Reuse, Recycle) in your daily life by:
  2. Reduce.
  3. - Use energy-efficient appliances and lighting.
  4. - Cut down on water usage.
  5. - Minimize single-use plastic and packaging.
  6. - Limit food waste by planning meals and using leftovers.
  7. Reuse.
Nov 5, 2023

What is an example of the 3Rs in research? ›

Definitions of the 3Rs
Basic
ReplacementAvoiding or replacing the use of animals in areas where they otherwise would have been used.
ReductionMinimising the number of animals used consistent with scientific aims.
RefinementMinimising the pain, suffering, distress or lasting harm that research animals might experience.

What is the 3R method used for? ›

The 3R approach for the management of wastes includes Reduce, Reuse and Recycle. One can reduce the amount of solid waste at the source itself. One can reuse the materials for some other useful purposes, before recycling or disposing them off.

What are the 3Rs of waste reduction? ›

The three R's - reduce, reuse and recycle - are three approaches, and the most environmentally preferred. Reducing, reusing and recycling waste helps save landfill space by keeping useful materials out.

What is adopting 3R approach? ›

In order to keep as much material out of the landfill as possible, it's important for each of us to do our part. One of the ways to put that plan into action is through the 3 Rs of waste management — Reduce, Reuse, Recycle.

What are the principles of the 3Rs? ›

What are the 3Rs ? The principle of reducing waste, reusing and recycling resources and products is often called the "3Rs." Reducing means choosing to use things with care to reduce the amount of waste generated. Reusing involves the repeated use of items or parts of items which still have usable aspects.

What are examples of the 3R rule? ›

Items such as plastic containers and pickle bottles should be reused to store other things. We can also reuse cardboard boxes, wrapping papers, and chocolate boxes. We can give away old clothes to the needy people. It is better to use cloth bags in place of plastic bags for shopping.

What is the 3R rule used for? ›

The 3R rule states "radial fractures make right angles to the rear." By examining the radial fractures and the direction in which they form a right angle, the rear side of the pane of glass (opposite the side the force was applied) can be determined.

What do the 3Rs stand for? ›

Reduce, reuse and recycle: The “three Rs” to help the planet

Reducing, reusing and recycling plastic is key in countering the devastation wreaked by climate change. Plastics are a major source of pollution on Earth. Unbridled manufacturing and low recycling rates of plastic products threaten our planet.

What are the benefits of the 3Rs? ›

By reducing, reusing, and recycling, we: decrease air and water pollution from waste disposal; conserve materials for continuous reuse in making new products; reduce demand for mining and extraction of virgin materials; and.

What are the Rs in the 3Rs concept? ›

Defining sustainable packaging

The 3Rs are reduce, reuse and recycle. Many believe the term dates back to the 1970s when people first became aware of the problems caused by waste and pollution. It is possible to apply the 3Rs to many applications, including packaging use.

What is the 3R approach in animal research? ›

What are the 3Rs? The principles of the 3Rs (Replacement, Reduction and Refinement) were developed over 50 years ago providing a framework for performing more humane animal research.

What are the 3Rs in clinical research? ›

Since then, the principles of Reduction, Refinement, and Replacement (the 3Rs)* have guided thinking, practice, and regulation of humane research animal use. While they have been a helpful framework for the past 70 years, the 3Rs represent the beginning, not the end, of humane laboratory animal science.

What is the 3 R principle? ›

The 3Rs are used to refer to the three terms that are – Reduce, Reuse and Recycle. While recycling is easily using the material again, once it is finished, reusing is discovering a new, alternate way to utilize the trash instead of discarding it.

What are the three RS? ›

In the subject of sustainability: Reduce, Reuse, and Recycle.

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